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Monday, 19 September 2011 11:21

section 1 notes

Written by David Sheppard
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Study guide- test 1

What does ECE stand for/ age range

Focus on education and care

Types of facilities: Private/public/ home/center

General History of ECE in America


Long term positive effects of children who attend ECE


Characteristics of a good teacher



Multiple Intelligence

Nature vs Nurture


Historical approach to ECE: Humanistic, Greeks, Luther, Dewey,

Frobel and concept of Kindergarten


Methods: Montessori, Waldorf, Reggio


What is NAEYC

What is the NAEYC code of ethics

What are standards


Head Start


Developmentally Appropriate Practice ( DAP)


Quality in ECE- Characteristics of a quality program

Tri-lemma: Quality-affordability-compensation



Homework due the day of the test: You are to answer  one of the reflection question boxes from Chapters 1, 2 OR  3- You may choose any of the yellow reflection question boxes.

You can type or handwrite the answers.  Due 2/14 for eve class and 2/15 for day class 



Chapter One
The Teacher

Working with Young Children

Many Roles, Responsibilities, and Rewards

Early Childhood Education

Defined as birth to age 8

Early Childhood Education and Care or Early Care and Education are current terms

Terms emphasize the important dual focus on learning and care

Early Childhood Educators have Many Titles


Early Childhood Professional




Home Visitor


What do you see in your mind when you think of an early childhood teacher?

Tasks of an
Early Childhood Educator

Day to day interactions with children

Planning and preparation of the learning environment

Planning the curriculum and activities

Observing and assessing children

Record keeping and reporting

Working with families, colleagues, and community agencies

Development of The Whole Child

Social, emotional, intellectual, and physical development are all important and interconnected

ECE has a commitment to working with/teaching The Whole Child


Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)

DAP is responsive care & education that is mindful of The Whole Child

DAP is:

Age appropriate

Individually appropriate

Culturally appropriate


Early Childhood Educators Today

Design curriculum that addresses Early Learning Standards

Assess what children have learned in terms of the standards

Identify how you, as a teacher, are meeting the standards

Teacher as a Person

Personal Characteristics


Multiple Intelligences

Personal Values & Morality

Attitudes toward Diversity

Self Knowledge & Ability to Reflect

Teacher as a Professional

Specialized knowledge base & training

Shared mission & values

Agreed upon standards

Code of Ethics

Autonomy & Self Regulation

Chapter Two
The Field of Early Childhood Education and Care

The Early Childhood Education Field in the
United States Today

Principle Purposes for Early Childhood Education Programs

To support the learning and development of young children

To care for children when families and adults are working and in training

Facilities and Sponsorships

Centers and Schools





Quality of the program

Compensation of the staff

Affordability for families

Sometimes called "QCA":

quality – compensation - affordability

High Quality Early Childhood Education Programs

Safe and Healthful Care

DAP and Stimulation

Positive Interactions with Adults

Encouragement for Social/Emotional Growth

Positive Relationships among


Positive Long Term Effects of High Quality ECE Programs

Gains in social, emotional, and cognitive development

Higher school readiness and language development

Higher IQ

Less special education

Fewer grades repeated

Fewer behavioral problems; less criminal justice intervention

Improved health

Economic self sufficiency

Universal P-K Programs
Research & Reflection

Describe the P-K Program within your State.

If your State does NOT have one what are the issues and ideas surrounding development of Universal P-K for your State?

Head Start

Comprehensive educational & support service program

Children of low income families

Nutrition, mental health, physical, dental, education, social, and emotional development components

Strengthen families – connect communities

story and Educational Models

Roots of the Past Connect to Practices of Today


Humanistic Tradition



Well Being

Interests of Human Beings

Historical perspective

Even back to ancient Greeks- held that children learn through play– Must stimulate both body and mind

Humans are basically good- Education should be for boys and girls

Martin Luther– Education should be for all children

Cormenius– Education should begin in infancy

Educational Movements that Shaped ECE

Froebel and Kindergarten-Child’s garden– transition


Progressive Education –
John Dewey- social skill, learn by doing, less formal

The Nursery School – McMillan’s

Focus on physical and intellectual welfare of poor children-

European Programs that Influenced ECE

Montessori Method –
psychological health of child- dignity– children learn best through sensory exploration

Waldorf Education –warm, homelike, emphasis on inner strength- goal to create equal society
Rudolf Steiner

Reggio Emilia – the learning environment as a ‘teacher’
--creative materials- projects—documentation of children’s work


Think of an important Historical Event that occurred during your lifetime.

How do you think that event might have influenced your growth and development?

Early Childhood Education and Care Today

Grew out of two historical streams

The Nursery School – health & development of the child

The Day Nursery – care for children while their family members worked


Multiple Intelligences

Howard Gardner of Harvard has identified eight distinct intelligences. This theory has emerged from recent cognitive research and "documents the extent to which students possess different kinds of minds and therefore learn, remember, perform, and understand in different ways," according to Gardner (1991).

According to this theory, "we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves.

 Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences - the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse problems, and progress in various domains."

“ Students learn in ways that are identifiably distinctive. The broad spectrum of students - and perhaps the society as a whole - would be better served if disciplines could be presented in a numbers of ways and learning could be assessed through a variety of means."


The learning styles are as follows:

Visual-Spatial - think in terms of physical space, as do architects and sailors. Very aware of their environments. They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps, daydream. They can be taught through drawings, verbal and physical imagery. Tools include models, graphics, charts, photographs, drawings, 3-D modeling, video, videoconferencing, television, multimedia, texts with pictures/charts/graphs.

Bodily-kinesthetic - use the body effectively, like a dancer or a surgeon. Keen sense of body awareness. They like movement, making things, touching. They communicate well through body language and be taught through physical activity, hands-on learning, acting out, role playing. Tools include equipment and real objects.

Musical - show sensitivity to rhythm and sound. They love music, but they are also sensitive to sounds in their environments. They may study better with music in the background. They can be taught by turning lessons into lyrics, speaking rhythmically, tapping out time. Tools include musical instruments, music, radio, stereo, CD-ROM, multimedia.

Interpersonal - understanding, interacting with others. These students learn through interaction. They have many friends, empathy for others, street smarts. They can be taught through group activities, seminars, dialogues. Tools include the telephone, audio conferencing, time and attention from the instructor, video conferencing, writing, computer conferencing, E-mail.

Intrapersonal - understanding one's own interests, goals. These learners tend to shy away from others. They're in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a strong will, confidence and opinions. They can be taught through independent study and introspection. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy and time. They are the most independent of the learners.

Linguistic - using words effectively. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. They like reading, playing word games, making up poetry or stories. They can be taught by encouraging them to say and see words, read books together. Tools include computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and lecture.

Logical -Mathematical - reasoning, calculating. Think conceptually, abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relationships. They like to experiment, solve puzzles, ask cosmic questions. They can be taught through logic games, investigations, mysteries. They need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details.

Naturalistic – These learners have a highly developed interest, understanding and attraction to the natural world. The outside world is a natural classroom for these learners.


Children who are strongly:





in words

reading, writing, telling stories, playing word games, etc.

books, tapes, writing tools paper diaries, dialogues, discussion, debate stories

Logical- Mathematical

by reasoning

experimenting, questioning, figuring out puzzles, calculating, etc.

things to explore and think about, science materials, manipulatives, trips to the planetarium and science museum


in images and pictures

designing, drawing, visualizing, doodling, etc.

art, LEGOs, video, movies, slides, imagination games, mazes, puzzles, illustrated books, trips to art museums

Bodily- Kinesthetic

through somatic sensations

dancing, running, jumping, building, touching, gesturing, etc.

role play, drama, movement, things to build, sports and physical games, tactile experiences, hands-on learning


via rhythms and melodies

singing, whistling, humming, tapping feet and hands, listening, etc..

sing-along time, trips to concerts, music playing at home and school, musical instruments


by bouncing ideas off other people

leading, organizing, relating, manipulating, mediating, partying, etc.

friends, group games, social gatherings, community events, clubs, mentors/apprenticeships


deeply inside themselves

setting goals, meditating, dreaming, being quiet,

secret places, time alone, self-paced projects, choices


Where does your true intelligence lie?  This quiz will tell you where you stand and what to do about it.  Read each statement.  If it expresses some characteristic of yours and sounds true for the most part, jot down a "T." If it doesn't, mark an "F." If the statement is sometimes true, sometimes false, leave it blank.

  1.  _____  I'd rather draw a map than give someone verbal directions.

  2.  _____  I can play (or used to play) a musical instrument.

  3.  _____  I can associate music with my moods.

  4.  _____  I can add or multiply in my head.

  5.  _____  I like to work with calculators and computers.

  6.  _____  I pick up new dance steps fast.

  7.  _____  It's easy for me to say what I think in an argument or debate.

  8.  _____  I enjoy a good lecture, speech or sermon.

  9.  _____  I always know north from south no matter where I am.

10.  _____  Life seems empty without music.

11.  _____  I always understand the directions that come with new gadgets or appliances.

12.  _____  I like to work puzzles and play games.

13.  _____  Learning to ride a bike (or skates) was easy.

14.  _____  I am irritated when I hear an argument or statement that sounds illogical.

15.  _____  My sense of balance and coordination is good.

16.  _____  I often see patterns and relationships between numbers faster and easier than others.

17.  _____  I enjoy building models (or sculpting).

18.  _____  I'm good at finding the fine points of word meanings.

19.  _____  I can look at an object one way and see it sideways or backwards just as easily.

20.  _____  I often connect a piece of music with some event in my life.

21.  _____  I like to work with numbers and figures.


22.  _____  Just looking at shapes of buildings and structures is pleasurable to me.

23.  _____  I like to hum, whistle and sing in the shower or when I'm alone.

24.  _____  I'm good at athletics.

25.  _____  I'd like to study the structure and logic of languages.

26.  _____  I'm usually aware of the expression on my face.

27.  _____  I'm sensitive to the expressions on other people's faces.

28.  _____  I stay "in touch" with my moods.   I have no trouble identifying them.

29.  _____  I am sensitive to the moods of others.

30.  _____  I have a good sense of what others think of me.


Place a check mark by each item you marked as "true."  Add your totals.   A total of four in any of the categories A through E indicates strong ability.   In categories F and G a score of one or more means you have abilities as well.  




Logical- Mathematical

M usical





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Last modified on Tuesday, 14 February 2012 15:26