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Chapter 10:
The Curriculum

Who Am I in the Lives of Children? An Introduction to Early Childhood Education

Ninth Edition

Stephanie Feeney

Eva Moravcik

Sherry Nolte

  Updated by:

Mary Goya, Hawaii Community College

Chapter Overview

•      Introduction to Curriculum

•      The Physical Development Curriculum

•      The Creative Arts Curriculum

•      The Communication Curriculum

•      The Inquiry Curriculum

Where Does Curriculum Come From?

•      Beliefs about what is worth knowing.

•      Knowledge of learners and their development.

•      Knowledge of the subject matter.

What is Curriculum?

There are distinct yet related ideas about what curriculum is:

•      Everything the child experiences (umbrella approach)

•      Curriculum approach or model

•      Document or kit that is published and designed

•      Intentional learning experiences designed by teacher(s)

–      The planned curriculum – name for these learning experiences designed in response to what they know and observe about children.

Standards
-”Content Standards”

•      State and national standards are available

–      K-12 grades

–      4 year olds

–      Guidelines maybe available for younger children

•      Standards maybe controversial, yet

–      They can provide important information for designing curriculum

Standards of Experience (Katz-2007)

•      Frequent opportunities & experiences

•      Intellectual engagement

•      Absorbing & challenging activities

•      Taking initiative & accepting responsibilities

•      Satisfaction of overcoming obstacles & solving problems

•      Applying literacy & numeracy skills

Physical Curriculum

•      Sensory Development

–      All the senses and kinesthetic awareness

•      Large Motor

–      Movement and physical activity

•      Fine Motor

–      Coordinating hands and fingers

Creative Arts Curriculum-Art

•      Art

–      Five Basic Processes

○     Drawing

○     Painting

○     Printing

○     Collage and Construction

○     Modeling and Sculpting

–      Elements of Art

○     Line

○     Color

○     Shape

○     Space

○     Design

Creative Arts Curriculum-Music

•      Music

–      Singing

–      Playing instruments

–      Composing and improvising

–      Listening and Appreciating

–      Performing

–      Musical Elements

○     Rhythm

○     Tone

○     Form

Creative Arts Curriculum
Creative Movement

•      Aesthetics

–      Love of beauty and the cultural criteria for beauty

•      Creative Movement

–      Ideas and feelings are expressed in movement

–      Imaginative ways utilized through movement

–      Interpret and follow suggestions

–      Movement Elements

○     Body awareness

○     Space

○     Time

○     Force

Communication Curriculum

•      Language

–      Understand and use language

•      Literacy

•      Literature-books for young children

–      Literature Genres

○     Fiction

○     Informational

○     Mood or Concept

○     Rhymes and Poetry

Literacy
 (Neuman, Copple, Bredekamp 1999)

•      Experience with language and background knowledge of the world

•      Experience with functional print

•      Phonological awareness

•      Alphabetic knowledge

•      Concepts of print

•      Book knowledge

Inquiry Curriculum
Science and Math

•      Science

–      Life; Earth and Space; Physical

•      Math

–      Classification

–      Seriation

–      Patterns

–      Measurement

–      Time

–      Spatial awareness

–      Display and analysis of data

Inquiry Curriculum
Social Studies

–      Social Studies

○     Relationships among people

○     Relationships between people and the world

Inquiry Process

–      Inquiry Processes for Young Children

○     Exploring

○     Identifying

○     Classifying

○     Comparing and Contrasting

○     Hypothesizing

○     Generalizing

Open Ended Questions

•      Children are encouraged to think when asked open ended questions.

•      Open questions can be answered in many ways

•      Ask questions and make statement that help children to:

–      Reason

–      Notice detail

–      Make comparisons

–      Come to conclusions

Chapter 10:
The Curriculum

Who Am I in the Lives of Children? An Introduction to Early Childhood Education

Ninth Edition

Stephanie Feeney

Eva Moravcik

Sherry Nolte

  Updated by:

Mary Goya, Hawaii Community College

Chapter Overview

•      Introduction to Curriculum

•      The Physical Development Curriculum

•      The Creative Arts Curriculum

•      The Communication Curriculum

•      The Inquiry Curriculum

Where Does Curriculum Come From?

•      Beliefs about what is worth knowing.

•      Knowledge of learners and their development.

•      Knowledge of the subject matter.

What is Curriculum?

There are distinct yet related ideas about what curriculum is:

•      Everything the child experiences (umbrella approach)

•      Curriculum approach or model

•      Document or kit that is published and designed

•      Intentional learning experiences designed by teacher(s)

–      The planned curriculum – name for these learning experiences designed in response to what they know and observe about children.

Standards
-”Content Standards”

•      State and national standards are available

–      K-12 grades

–      4 year olds

–      Guidelines maybe available for younger children

•      Standards maybe controversial, yet

–      They can provide important information for designing curriculum

Standards of Experience (Katz-2007)

•      Frequent opportunities & experiences

•      Intellectual engagement

•      Absorbing & challenging activities

•      Taking initiative & accepting responsibilities

•      Satisfaction of overcoming obstacles & solving problems

•      Applying literacy & numeracy skills

Physical Curriculum

•      Sensory Development

–      All the senses and kinesthetic awareness

•      Large Motor

–      Movement and physical activity

•      Fine Motor

–      Coordinating hands and fingers

Creative Arts Curriculum-Art

•      Art

–      Five Basic Processes

○     Drawing

○     Painting

○     Printing

○     Collage and Construction

○     Modeling and Sculpting

–      Elements of Art

○     Line

○     Color

○     Shape

○     Space

○     Design

Creative Arts Curriculum-Music

•      Music

–      Singing

–      Playing instruments

–      Composing and improvising

–      Listening and Appreciating

–      Performing

–      Musical Elements

○     Rhythm

○     Tone

○     Form

Creative Arts Curriculum
Creative Movement

•      Aesthetics

–      Love of beauty and the cultural criteria for beauty

•      Creative Movement

–      Ideas and feelings are expressed in movement

–      Imaginative ways utilized through movement

–      Interpret and follow suggestions

–      Movement Elements

○     Body awareness

○     Space

○     Time

○     Force

Communication Curriculum

•      Language

–      Understand and use language

•      Literacy

•      Literature-books for young children

–      Literature Genres

○     Fiction

○     Informational

○     Mood or Concept

○     Rhymes and Poetry

Literacy
 (Neuman, Copple, Bredekamp 1999)

•      Experience with language and background knowledge of the world

•      Experience with functional print

•      Phonological awareness

•      Alphabetic knowledge

•      Concepts of print

•      Book knowledge

Inquiry Curriculum
Science and Math

•      Science

–      Life; Earth and Space; Physical

•      Math

–      Classification

–      Seriation

–      Patterns

–      Measurement

–      Time

–      Spatial awareness

–      Display and analysis of data

Inquiry Curriculum
Social Studies

–      Social Studies

○     Relationships among people

○     Relationships between people and the world

Inquiry Process

–      Inquiry Processes for Young Children

○     Exploring

○     Identifying

○     Classifying

○     Comparing and Contrasting

○     Hypothesizing

○     Generalizing

Open Ended Questions

•      Children are encouraged to think when asked open ended questions.

•      Open questions can be answered in many ways

•      Ask questions and make statement that help children to:

–      Reason

–      Notice detail

–      Make comparisons

–      Come to conclusions

Chapter 12:
Including All Children

Who Am I in the Lives of Children? An Introduction to Early Childhood Education

Ninth Edition

Stephanie Feeney

Eva Moravcik

Sherry Nolte

  Updated by:

Mary Goya, Hawaii Community College

Chapter Overview

•      People-First Language

•      Identifying and Serving Children with Disabilities

•      Implementing Inclusion

•      Characteristics and Strategies

•      Working with Families

People First Language

•      Put the Child First

•      “Children with Disabilities”

•      Not “Disabled Children”

•      Serving Children with Disabilities - Inclusion

–      Preschool and Elementary Age Children best served in regular education classroom = Inclusion.

–      Inclusion is best for children and the law!

Benefits of Inclusion

•      For Children with disabilities

–      Age appropriate friendships and interactions

–      Observe and learn from all children

•      For Children without disabilities

–      Learn about differences and develop coaching skills

–      Develop empathy and diverse understandings

•      For Teachers

–      Expand professional understandings and experiences

–      Sense of satisfaction

•      For Families

–      Feel part of a community

–      See the child being accepted

Inclusion and the Law

•      IDEA-Individuals w/Disabilities Education Act

–      2004 Federal Law and Endorsed by NAEYC

–      Provide inclusive educational opportunities

–      Provide free and appropriate public education (FAPE)

–      In the least restrictive environment (LRE)

–      Purpose is to allow children to learn from typically developing peers

Identifying Children with Special Needs

•      Observe and Document

•      Response to Intervention

•      Eligibility for Special Education Services

•      Determining Educational Needs

Individualized Education Plans

•      Individualized Education Plans (IEP)

•      Individualized Family Service Plans for children under 3 (IFSP)

•      Developed by Teacher(s), Family Member(s), and Relevant Experts.  The are REQUIRED.

–      Include development goals

–      Accommodations and Modifications

–      Who is responsible

–      Family and cultural sensitivity

Children with Special Needs: Lessons for Early Childhood Professionals,
 Kostelnik, Onaga, Hohde, & Whiren 2002

•      Preparing for Inclusion – suggests teacher finds out…

–      How the child reacts to sensations

–      How the child processes information

–      How the child approaches a problem, makes plans and takes action

–      The child’s style of emotional, social and intellectual functioning

–      How the child communicates with others

–      How the child typically interacts with peers and adults

–      What the family is like and their typical routines

Program Modifications for Inclusion

•      Environmental Support

•      Material Adaptations

•      Simplify Activities

•      Adaptive Devices

•      Peer Support

•      Invisible Support

Inclusion and Developmentally
Appropriate Practice (DAP)

•      NAEYC Position statement supports inclusion & DAP

•      Provides less restrictive & open ended experiences

•      Special needs child feel more successful & fulfilled

•      Social opportunities are supported

•      PLAY remains vital to children with special needs

–      Teacher may need to teach and reinforce play skills

Disabilities Encountered

•      Orthopedic Impairments

•      Sensory Impairments

•      Communication Disorders

•      Cognitive Delays

•      Learning Disabilities

•      Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

•      Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

•      Autism Spectrum Disorder

Orthopedic Impairments
Environment Modifications

•      Rearrange furniture ao easier for the child to move.

•Adjust table and easel heights.

•Relocate supplies & toys to make more accessible.

•Adapt standard equipment, like tricycles.

•Let child discover own abilities and limitations.

•Encourage independence; teach self-help skills.

Children with ADD or ADHD
Modifications

•      Simplify surroundings and reduce visual/auditory stimulation.

•Clearly define the child’s work or play area.

•Position yourself nearby to offer assistance or encouragement.

•Acknowledge constructive & appropriate behavior.

Autism Spectrum

•      A child has autism spectrum disorder when formal assessment determines the child meets some of the following criteria (Hall 2009):

–      Impairment in social interaction: (eye contact, development of peer relationships, sharing with others, and social or emotional reciprocity).

–      Impairments in communication: (delay in or lack of spoken language, inability to have a conversation, repetitive use of language, or lack of make-believe play)

–      Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. (rigid following of nonfunctional routines or rituals, motor mannerisms like hand or finger flapping).

Additional Needs

•      Abused/Neglected

•      Chronic Health Conditions

•      Gifted and Talented

Working with Families

•      Observe child carefully & establish concern

•      Collect observation samples

•      Speak with appropriate/required colleagues

•      Schedule family conference

•      Begin positive

•      Share concern with observations

•      Build an alliance

•      Work together, seek assistance and resources

•      Confidentiality

•      Family has right/responsibility to determine services

Chapter Thirteen
Working with Families

n  Building Partnerships and Relationships

n  Stages of Relationships
to Families

Gonzalez & Mena suggest practitioners go through three stages:

n  Stage One – Rescuing/saving

n  Stage Two – Understanding the family’s importance

n  Stage Three – Enhancing and supporting the family

n  Families Experience Stress

n  Single parents

n  Divorce and family changes

n  Economic conditions – unemployment

n  Stressful working conditions

n  Unmet child care needs

n  Substance abuse

n  Child abuse – domestic violence

n  Military deployments

n  Health issues or inadequate health care

n  Family Stress Reflection

n  Review the list and notice those your own family has experienced

n  Review the list again and notice those stressors you are aware of in families around you

n  Confidentiality

n  Is an ethical obligation of extreme importance

n  Children’s records are confidential

n  Keep information about families & children confidential

n  The Family Education Right & Privacy Act

n  Making Families Feel Welcome

n  Hellos & Goodbyes

n  Sharing Information

n  First Connections

n  Home Visits

n  Daily Greetings

n  Communication with Families

n  Daily

n  Family Corner, Area, or Table

n  Written Communication

n  Bulletin Board Message System

n  Communication Logs

n  Emails and Phone Calls

n  Newsletters

n  Family Conference

n  Roles and purpose

n  Space and time

n  Planning and content

n  Start and end positive

n  Listen – put parents at ease

n  Give and take in conversation

n  Summarize

n  Families in the Program

n  Volunteers in the classroom

n  Sharing their knowledge, talents, and/or resources

n  Special times and/or events

n  Lending libraries & resources

n  Workshops & work days

n  Members of advisory or policy boards

n  Cultural influences

n  following are some areas in which cultural differences may affect child -rearing practices within families:

n  A.Toileting

n  B. Food and feeding

n  C. Nursing, bottles, and pacifiers

n  D. Sleeping arrangements

n  E.Ways children convey respect/disrespect

n  F. Role of the child in the family

•          G Responsibilities of children

•           H Relative value placed on play and academics

•          I Definitions of safe and healthy

•          J Appropriate dress

•          K Sex roles

•          L Modesty

•          M Appropriate knowledge for children

•          N Attitudes toward emerging sexuality

n  Examples can be diverse but need to be specific. For instance, a family may choose to teach young boys to urinate by peeing into a cup and then emptying the urine into the toilet. In some families, everyone might go to sleep at the same time in one communal family bed.

n  (See section on Supporting Diverse Families)

Chapter Fourteen
Becoming an Early Childhood Professional

Making a Commitment
 to Early Childhood Education and Care

Professional Commitment

Allegiance to Children

Philosophical Base

Knowledge and Skill

Commitment to Ethical Behavior

Reflection:

“I am persuaded that good teachers, first of all, must hold strong commitments and convictions from which their practices flow.” 

                                                                James Hymes – 1981

What does this quote mean to you as you prepare to become an Early Childhood Professional?

Share with a partner, a small group, or in a whole class discussion

Make a Commitment to
Ethical Conduct

Understand and Use the Code of Ethical Conduct

NAEYC Code delineates responsibilities and provides guidance

Plan Your Career

What age children are you drawn to?

What teaching role do you want initially?

Do you value independence?

Could you work in a large bureaucracy?

What type of educational program would you prefer?

Becoming a Professional

Take care of yourself

Connect with colleagues

Commitment to your profession

Continue to learn and grow

Join a professional organization

Advocate

Remember

Stand Firm in What is Right for Children

Chapter Fourteen
Becoming an Early Childhood Professional

n  Making a Commitment
 to Early Childhood Education and Care

n  Professional Commitment

n  Allegiance to Children

n  Philosophical Base

n  Knowledge and Skill

n  Commitment to Ethical Behavior

n  Reflection:

“I am persuaded that good teachers, first of all, must hold strong commitments and convictions from which their practices flow.” 

                                                                James Hymes – 1981

n  What does this quote mean to you as you prepare to become an Early Childhood Professional?

n  Share with a partner, a small group, or in a whole class discussion

n  Make a Commitment to
Ethical Conduct

n  Understand and Use the Code of Ethical Conduct

n  NAEYC Code delineates responsibilities and provides guidance

n  Plan Your Career

n  What age children are you drawn to?

n  What teaching role do you want initially?

n  Do you value independence?

n  Could you work in a large bureaucracy?

n  What type of educational program would you prefer?

n  Becoming a Professional

n  Take care of yourself

n  Connect with colleagues

n  Commitment to your profession

n  Continue to learn and grow

n  Join a professional organization

n  Advocate

n  Remember

Stand Firm in What is Right for Children