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Thursday, 18 October 2012 10:56

temperament/attacment- a few notes

Written by David Sheppard
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An inborn predisposition to interact and react to the environment in a particular style

 *Fearful ( slow to warm up)

•         Feisty ( difficult)

•         Flexible ( easy)


  • The enduring relationship of trust and affection that serves to connect child and caregiver.
  • Develops as caregivers respond to the child’s needs :  Provide consistent attention and affection
  • Provides a secure attachment which serves as base for the child as they explore the world- Assists cognitive development.
  • Erikson: Trust vs. Mistrust:  establishment of a sense of trust is the major task of infancy
  • Insecure attachment when needs are not met- view world with distrust, fear, anxiety, 
  • Obstacles to attachment: addiction, depression, illness, separation.

Emotional development

  • Beginning emotion of comfort or distress
  • Basic emotions: sad, happy, fear, anger develop during the 6 months
  • Social smile:  around week 6 :develops connection to others
  • Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety develops  after 6 months> (related to cognitive development/ object permanence)
  • Social referencing- look to trusted other for cues in unfamiliar / uncertain situations
  • Self awareness ( 18-24 months)- leads to emotions such as shame, embarrassment, pride.



  • Autonomy: A growing sense of individual identity
  •  Erickson: Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
  • No!!!      Mine!!!!!
  • Growing self-help skills. Good to encourage


Study guide

§ Prenatal

§  Gestation=38 weeks after conception  Age of viability

§  3 main prenatal periods: Germinal/ Embryo/ Fetal : know main developmental processes of each

§  Implantation  ( most fertilized eggs don’t survive to birth)

§  Differentiation

§  Placenta/ Umbilical cord

§  Amniotic sac/ Amniotic fluid   Chorion- outer protective layer of womb

§  Neural tube    ( beginning structure of the brains and central nervous system)

§  Folic acid to prevent spinal bifida and other abnormalities

§  Teratogens: drugs/ social-emotional/ toxins/ diseases/ behavioral   ---  Sensitive period

§   FAS

§   Prenatal testing:  Ultrasound Amniocentesis   Chorionic villi sampling

§  Triple screen ( blood test) Fetal Alpha Protein 

§    3 main Stages of labor at the major processes of each

§    Dilation and effacement/ delivery of the child/delivery of the placenta

§  Normal/ low/ very low birth weight: some causes

§  Normal gestation period/ Preterm : some causes and effects

§   Risk for teen mom’s

§  Apgar test

  • SIDS ( risk factors)      Post-partum depression Advantages of breast feeding
  • Reflexes ( involuntary reaction to stimuli) rooting, sucking, grasping, mor0   ( absence of may indicate neurological damage)
  • Brain- neuron – dendrite-axon-synapse—myelin –connections through stimulation—(Piaget-sensorimotor stage) (Vygotsky guided participation)   Language development : crying, cooing, babbling, first word- child directed speech- approaches to how language develops- encouraging language development in the first two years)
  •   Trust vs mistrust-  Autonomy vs shame doubt     Attachment-     Temperament-  social smile-- separation anxiety-  stranger anxiety-self-awareness emotions
  • Basic milestones from the three main domains – ( Some will be  posted on class page)