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Wednesday, 26 September 2012 17:01

study aid- test 1 , units 1.2.5. and 6

Written by David Sheppard
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Some of the basics

  Concepts can be thought of a the basic building blocks or science and mate– They allow us to organize and categorize information-

  So, one to one correspondence, counting, sorting/classification are

  basic concepts

  Learning Cycle

  Awareness- child achieves a broad recognition  of objects, events, ( infants)

  Exploration- Here there is the ‘construction’ of meaning through sensory experience with objects/ the world around them. ( Infant’s highest level. Teacher acts a facilitator – helps to create , encourage new forms of exploration)

  Inquiry- Here children do comparison of their constructs with those around them– create generalizations about objects, events,- ( teacher can work as a guide for the inquiry- ask questions) ( Usually highest level for 3-4 years)

  Utilization-Here learners can apply what they have learned – use their understanding in a new setting and situation ( teacher can best assist by creating opportunities to apply knowledge to the ‘real world’

   (   Eg. Measurememnt  §  3-4 years will compare sizes, categorize,  (group into shared characteristics), simple seriation ( where they place in logical sequence

  Types of learning

  Naturalistic – Learning that occurs as children go through their daily activities

  Informal—Learning situations that are initiated by adults- “Do you think you have enough cookies for all your friends-? Why don’t we count them”?

  Structured Learning  where the adult chooses the experience for the child and provides some direction to the child’s actions. Teacher has activity to teach about how colors mix.

  Divergent experience– Open to many solutions– invite questioning- creative

  Standards provide guidance as to what children should be able to master at a given age.

  Often assess child mastery using observation, questioning,- best to stay clear of formal tests Read 58


  One area of cognition is Logic-Math- where children learn relationships

  (same/differenct– more/less– facilitated by language – symbolic representation—

  Infants/toddler explore the world through senses ( sensorimotor)

  Representational thought- children in preschool age ( pre operational) begin to think through a situation before searching for the answer to the problem– capable of Symbolic thought– rapid language advancement

   Vygotsky: We scaffold children’s learning through process of guided participation where knowledge is transmitted through a more mature learner

  Problem solving process– children learn to generate their own questions and means to answer-

  Utilize skill of Estimation ( how many jelly beans in jar)

  Objectives: Every planned activity for students should have learning OBJECTIVES:  A  specific description of what you desire the students to gain from their participation in the activity .

  We want to our objectives to be MEASURABLE: --we want to be able to  validate that the students achieved our objective

Terms from chapter 2

  convergent questions and directions having only one possible answer or activity divergent questions and directions provide opportunities for guessing and experimenting

  informal learning learning experiences initiated by the adult as children engage in their everyday natural activities \

 naturalistic learning learning that occurs as children go about their daily activities

   structured learning learning in which the adult chooses the experience for the child and provides some direction to the child’s actions

  teachable moment a time when adults recognize that a child has chosen an activity that provides a time to insert instruction

multiple intelligences areas of strength identified by Howard Gardner

    Concept Development in Mathematics and Science

•         Unit 5

         Science Process Skills

•         Allow children to process new information through concrete experiences

•         Are progressive and build on and overlap each other

•         Skills appropriate for preschool and primary students

–     observing

–     comparing

–     classifying

–     measuring

–     communicating

•         Intermediate process skills

–     gathering and organizing information

–     inferring

–     predicting

         Developing Scientific Attitudes Used in Inquiry:  Curiosity ,  Positive approach to failure

•        Learning science:

•         aids in the development of language and
reading skills

•         provides various opportunities to determine
cause-and-effect relationships

•         Appropriate Science Content
for PreK–3

•         Life science

•         Physical science

•         Earth and space science

•         Science and technology education

•         History and nature of science

•         Health science and nutrition

·  ’’Chapter 6 notes


•         Section I
Concept Development in Mathematics and Science

•         Unit 6;;

•         •         Concept Formation in
Young Children:

•         Support the development of young children at their present level of operation

•         Enhance awareness

•         Give children plenty of time to manipulate and explore

•         First hand experiences are essential

•        The brain naturally classifies and stores information

–     it groups related information together (schema)

•         When new information conflicts with stored information, the child is in a state of disequilibrium

–     this creates a teachable moment

–     in this state, children actively seek information

•         When sufficient information is gathered to explain the conflict, the child returns to a state of equilibrium

•         Discrepant Events

•         Putting children in a state of disequilibrium prepares them for learning

–     they become curious

–     they want to know what is happening

•         Take advantage of this part of the natural learning process to teach children what you want them to know

         Strategies that Encourage Inquiry

•         Ask a question about objects, organisms, and events in the environment

          open ended  questions: "what do you think happen if ,,,,,,"

•         Plan and conduct a simple investigation

•         Employ simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses

•         Use data to construct a reasonable explanation

•         Communicate investigations and explanations

•         Assessing Inquiry Learning