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Tuesday, 20 November 2012 18:27

123 class only- notes 6-9

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chapter 6 The When, Where, and What of Movement Sessions

Chapter Outline

§ Scheduling

§ Space

§ Group Size

§ Attire

§ Equipment and Props






Rhythm Sticks


In Brief

This chapter offers answers to some of the most commonly asked questions concerning the planning of movement sessions. Teachers who are just beginning to consider implementing a movement program—whether they’re experienced teachers or new—want to know (1) how to fit movement into the schedule, (2) how much space is required, (3) how many children to work with, (4) what the children should wear, and (5) what kind of materials are necessary.

Terms to Know

Group time

Group size

Unrestrictive clothing

Key Questions

Q. What are some of the factors that will influence decisions about the movement program?

A. The ages of the children, the number of children, the number of adults who’ll be working with you and the children, the space available, the equipment available, funds that may or may not be available for purchasing equipment, and the human resources available for constructing equipment.

Q. Why is it helpful to schedule movement sessions for the same time each day or week?

A. Because young children are comforted by predictability.

Q. Why is time that may already be scheduled for large group activity appropriate for movement sessions?

A. Because these periods typically alternate with quieter activities, as well as with periods when the children have had a chance to work or be alone.

Q. What is the most significant factor in determining the length of movement sessions?

A. The children’s ages.

Q. What should be your first consideration in determining the size of the group you work with?

A. The size of the space available to you.

Q. What are some of the reasons children should be encouraged to move in bare feet?

A. The feet have sentient qualities and can be used to grip the floor for strength and balance. The separate parts of the feet can be more easily felt and used when bare. Bare feet that accidentally kick or step on somebody are less likely to hurt.

Q. Name four benefits of working with equipment and/or props.

A. (1) Equipment and objects can allow new movement possibilities, (2) manipulating objects requires different levels of coordination, (3) children will become comfortable with objects, and (4) focusing on the movement of a prop helps alleviate self-consciousness.

Sample of a half-day program

8:50–9:00                                Arrival.

9:00–9:20                                Group Time.

9:20–9:40                                Snack.

9:40–10:30                  Activity Time.

10:30–10:40                Cleanup Time.

10:40–11:00                Small Group Activity.

11:00–11:40                Outdoor Time.

11:40–11:55                Group Time.

11:55–12:00                Departure.

Choosing and Using Space

for Movement

•           Find—or create—the most open space possible.

•           Find creative ways to use the space available.

•           Avoid cement or concrete flooring if possible.

•           Find an area with as few distractions as possible.

•           Take all necessary safety precautions.

chapter 7 Choosing and Using Music

Chapter Outline

§ Choosing Music





§ Using Music

Musical Experiences

Musical Elements

In Brief

For young children, music without movement is nearly impossible; they tend to “listen” with their whole bodies. Similarly, a movement program that doesn’t include music seems incomplete. But what “kind” of music? Where is the best place to find it? And, once found, how should it be used? These questions are answered in this chapter.

Terms to Know

Styles of music














Key Questions

Q. What are two important factors to bear in mind when selecting music?

A. Quality and variety.

Q. What are the five aspects of musical experiences that should be part of every child’s life?

A. Listening, moving, singing, playing, and creating.

Q. What is the difference between listening and hearing?

A. Hearing requires no concentration, but to really listen, one must pay attention and focus the mind on what is being heard.

Q. What is the best way to introduce the musical elements of tempo and volume?

A. By contrasting the extremes.

Q. How can you best ensure that the children are exposed to a variety of musical elements?

A. By choosing a variety of musical styles, periods, nationalities, and textures to play for the children.

Music, for young children:

•          Can’t be considered as separate from movement

•          Is not limited to the auditory sense

•          Must be experienced as a whole, through

            – listening

            – singing

            – moving

            – playing

            – creating

Providing Musical Variety

through Different:





Relationship of Musical Elements

to Movement Elements:

Tempo = Time

Volume = Force

Articulation = Flow

Pitch = Levels (Space)

Music’s Role in the Movement Program

•           Provides an extra spark

•           Contributes new ideas

•           Sets the proper mood: energizing or relaxing

•           Helps make abstract concepts—like slow and fast—more concrete

part three

Facilitating Movement Experiences

chapter 8  Teaching Methods

Chapter Outline

§ The Direct Approach

§ Guided Discovery

§ Exploration

In Brief

Which teaching method(s) can best convey the subject matter being taught in a movement program for young children? This chapter reviews three commonly implemented styles of movement instruction and weighs the pros and cons of each.

Terms to Know

Direct approach

Guided discovery

Spectrum of Teaching Styles


Key Questions

Q. Cite at least three benefits of the command style of teaching.

A. Possibilities include (1) Modeling is often the best means of helping some children achieve success. (2) Imitating helps children learn to follow directions and physically replicate what their eyes see. (3) Results are produced immediately. (4) Teachers can instantly ascertain if a child is having difficulty following directions or producing the required response. (5) It takes little time to show the children how the movements are to be performed. (6) The direct approach makes conformity and uniformity possible.

Q. Why is guided discovery also referred to as convergent problem solving?

A. The teacher has a specific task in mind and leads the children through a series of questions and challenges toward its discovery. That is, the teacher guides the students as they converge on the answer sought.

Q. What are the two techniques suggested for designing a series of questions and challenges that lead the students to the desired outcome in guided discovery?

A. (1) Working backward, beginning with the final question (the one that will produce the targeted answer) and (2) writing up a series of commands, as though using a direct approach, and then converting the commands to questions.

Q. Why is exploration also known as divergent problem solving?

A. It results in a variety of responses to each challenge.

Q. What are the three aspects involved in extending exploration?

A. (1) Using the elements of movement to vary the way in which skills are performed, (2) reacting to the children’s responses, and (3) putting parameters on the exercise.

Q. What type of encouragement should be offered as the children are exploring movement possibilities?

A. Neutral feedback.

Q. What are the major disadvantages of teaching “to the middle”?

A. Less-skilled students always lag behind, caught up in a cycle of failure and lack of self-confidence, while highly skilled children become bored by lack of sufficient challenge.

Teaching Methods

• The Direct Approach:

command style

• Guided Discovery:

convergent problem solving

• Exploration:

divergent problem solving

Advantages of Direct Approach

• Uses time efficiently

• Produces immediate results

• Produces uniform movement

• Teaches children to replicate movements

• Teaches children to follow directions

• Lends itself to immediate evaluation

Disadvantages of the Direct Approach

• Doesn’t allow for creativity and


• Doesn’t allow individual differences in development and ability levels

• Focuses on the product rather than the process

Advantages of Indirect Approaches

•           Stimulate cognitive processes and enhance critical thinking

•           Develop self-responsibility

•           Broaden the movement vocabulary

•           Reduce fear of failure and produce a sense of security

•           Allow for individual differences among children

•           Allow participation and success for all children

•           Develop self-confidence

•           Promote independence

•           Develop children’s patience with themselves and their peers

•           Lead to acceptance of others’ ideas

Disadvantages of Indirect Approaches

•     Require more time

•         Require patience and practice by the teacher

chapter 9 Creating and Maintaining a Positive Learning Environment

Chapter Outline

§ Tried and Tested Teaching Tips

Establish Rules

Establish Boundaries

Use Positive Challenges

Make Corrections Creatively

Use Honest Praise and Positive Reinforcement

Use Your Voice as a Tool

Use Familiar Imagery

Monitor Energy Levels

Be Flexible

§ What about the Nonparticipant?

§ What about Disruptive Behavior?

§ The Role of Relaxation

In Brief

Fear of losing control of the children is one reason why educators and caregivers choose not to include movement in the program. This chapter addresses the issue head-on, offering recommendations to avoid disruptive situations and, if necessary, to handle them.

Personal space

Auditory or visual signal


Positive challenge

Praise addict


Disruptive behavior

Key Questions

Q. What is the foremost factor in ensuring there’ll be few behavior problems?

A. A success-oriented program.

Q. What are the two rules that should be part of every movement program?

A. (1) We will respect one another’s personal space. (2) We will participate with as little noise as possible.

Q. Why are boundaries sometimes necessary in a gymnasium or exceptionally large room?

A. Too much space can be overwhelming to some children.

Q. What are three alternatives to singling out children who have responded incorrectly?

A. (1) Asking children responding correctly to demonstrate, (2) verbally describing the desired response, and (3) reissuing the challenge.

Q. What are two alternatives to false praise and value judgments?

A. Recognition and encouragement.

Q. What should be the primary role of nonparticipating children?

A. That of audience.

Q. What specific technique is effective both when disruptive behavior is used to get attention and once a child is asked to take a time out?

A. Ignoring.

Q. Cite three reasons why relaxation should be part of a movement program.

A. The reasons are (1) alternating relaxing activities with vigorous ones will help ensure a manageable environment; (2) relaxation provides an opportunity to experience motionlessness in contrast to movement; (3) relaxation helps prepare children for slow and sustained movement, which requires greater control than fast; and (4) relaxation helps calm the children.

Tried & Tested Teaching Tips

1. Establish rules.

2. Establish boundaries.

3. Use positive challenges.

4. Make corrections creatively.

5. Use honest praise/positive reinforcement.

6. Use your voice as a tool.

7. Use familiar imagery.

8. Monitor energy levels.  9. Be flexible.

Tips for the Shy Child

•           Sit with the child for a few minutes at least once a day.

•           Invite another child to join the activity.

•           Gradually add more children to the small group.

•           Continue daily small-group activities while also making an effort to involve the child in total group times.

•           Reinforce any involvement in group activities.

Eva Essa

Benefits of

Including Relaxation

1.         When used alternately with vigorous activities, helps prevent wall bouncing

2.         Chance to experience motionlessness

3.         Preparation for slow, sustained movement

4.         Helps wind them down

5.         Enhances ability to imagine

6.         Exposure to quiet, peaceful


Last modified on Tuesday, 27 November 2012 12:50