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Wednesday, 28 November 2012 18:24

study guide for final

Written by David Sheppard
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  • Naturalistic – Learning that occurs as children go through their daily activities
  • Informal—Learning situations that are initiated by adults- “Do you think you have enough cookies for all your friends-? Why don’t we count them”?
  • Structured Learning where the adult chooses the experience for the child and provides some direction to the child’s actions. Teacher has activity to teach about how colors mix.

section II
Fundamental Concepts and Skills

Unit 14
Parts and Wholes

The Importance of Parts and Wholes

The concept of parts and wholes is the bridge to understanding fractions.

Three Types of
Part/Whole Relationships

 1-Some things are made up of special parts

2- Groups of things can be divided into parts

3-Whole things can be divided into smaller parts

able to identify examples of Parts andWholes Activities:

Assessment and Evaluation

Does the child use the words part and whole?

Does the child use the words correctly?

Observe the child’s actions:

does she divide items equally to share with friends?

does she cut or break things into smaller pieces, if there are not enough for everyone?

does she realize when part of something is missing?

does she realize that people, animals, and things have parts that are unique to each?

Unit 16  Fundamental Concepts in Science

The fundamental concepts in math are also fundamental in science:

*One-to-one correspondence

*Number sense and counting

*Sets and classifying

*Comparing

*Shape

*Space

*Parts and wholes

*One-to-One Correspondence in Science :Example: match animals to their homes

Number Sense and Counting
in Science

Use the opportunity to count while doing science activities -- collect data.

Sequencing and Ordinal Position in Science : Science offers many opportunities to reinforce these concepts such as observing life cycles (stages of a butterfly)

Groups and Classifying in Science: Example: classify animals into groups: mammals, reptiles, amphibians

 Comparing in Science :Example: compare the size of plants as they grow

Shape in Science: Help children learn that most things have a shape which can help in identification

After children are used to identifying shapes, introduce bilateral symmetry their own bodies--butterfly wings

Space in Science :Use space words when teaching science to young children

Study travel in space---loading toys into a toybox--Do you think we have enough space?

Section III --Applying Fundamental Concepts, Attitudes, and Skills

Unit 17: Ordering, Seriation, and Patterning

These concepts are the basis of algebra.

Ordering Involves comparing more than two things or more than two sets--Placing things in a sequence from first to last

Seriation : Term used by Piaget that means ordering

Patterning--Related to ordering

children need a basic understanding of ordering to do patterning

Involves making or discovering auditory, visual, and motor regularities

Ordering and Patterning Words;  Next--Last--Biggest-Smallest--Thinnest--Fattest--Shortest--Tallest--Before-After

 Examples of Ordering and Patterning Activities: placing baby dolls in order from smallest to largest.

Assessment and Evaluation

Does the child use ordering and patterning words during daily activities?

Do patterns appear in the child’s art work?

Ask questions, make comments or suggestions such as: Which doll is taller?  Which block is shorter?  John is first in line  Line up from the shortest to the tallest.


Unit 18
Measurement: Volume, Weight, Length, and Temperature

Stages in which the Concepts of Measurement Develop

Sensorimotor and preoperational ( toddler and preschool) Play stage: Making comparisons

Child learns to use arbitrary units ( may measure with their hands, or a block)

Concrete operational ( elementary school age) =Child begins to see a need for standard units

Child begins to use and understand standard units

Examples of Measurement Activities: child determines who has the biggest scoop of cream-- The child uses his hand to measure a piece of tape.

Assessment and Evaluation

Does the child use the word measure in an adult manner?

Does the child use measuring tools in her play as she sees adults use them?

Can the child solve everyday problems by using informal measurement?