Wednesday, 08 February 2012 16:28

study guide test 1

Written by David Sheppard
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Nature vs  nurture

3 main domains of development ( biosocial/psychosocial/cognitive)

Contexts/ holistic approach

Continuous( gradual) vs discontinuous ( stages): development

 Scientific method: hypothesis/correlation/

Longitudinal/ cross-sectional, case study

Theories: What is a theory?

 Psychosexual (Freud) behavior motivated by unconscious drive for gratification related to different areas of the body- Oral, Anal, Phalic, Latent, Genital

Psychosocial (Erikson) social-emotional crisis at each stage. First stage: Trust vs Mistrust

Cognitive-Piaget- stages of cognitive development- Children as active learner who construct knowledge through interaction with their world. First stage: Sensori-motor

Social-Cultural- Vygotsky- Knowledge passed through others. Guided Participation. Culture shapes our learning/ language shapes are learning.

Social Learning- Children are highly influenced by what is modeled for them

Behaviorist-Operant Conditioning-  We tend to repeat behaviors that result in reward, creates a conditioning where the behavior is reinforced.

Ecological theory. Development is shaped by interaction between environmental systems. From the smallest system, the,Micro system, which focuses on the child and his immediate relationships out to the Macro system, the largest system that includes the overarching values/principles of a society. A change in one system, affects all systems.

Heredity:

 DNA

Gene

Chromosome

 Dominant / Recessive Transmission: eye color/ sickle-cell anemia

Concept of : Geneotype/ Pheneotype

Carrier

Polygenic/ skin color. height

Multifactorial

Gamete (sex cell) ( Ovum/Sperm) =23 chromosomes

Zygote( fertilized egg)= 23 PAIR of chromosomes ( 50% from mom and 50% from dad)

Monozygotic/ dizygotic twins

23RD Chromosome determines gender  Female =XX, male=XY (sperm determines the sex of the child)

 X-linked : Fragile X- ( #1 cause of mental delay that is genetically transmitted)

Chromosomal abnormalities: Down Syndrome ( mental delay, physical characteristics)

    ( how is it related to older mothers)

Genetic counseling.

Last modified on Wednesday, 08 February 2012 16:34