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David Sheppard

David Sheppard

 

 

Position: Instructor, Child Development

Office: 2201 (within the gates of the Child Center)

Phone: 760-355-6397

dscott12121@yahoo.com

Website URL: E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Thursday, 29 November 2012 14:26

school Age cognitive-- Notes


 

The School Years: Cognitive Development 

 
 A Prime Time for Learning 

  • Children in the school years are inquisitive and eager to learn new skills.

 
 Piaget’s Third Stage 

  • Concrete operational thought is the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions.
  • Children in this stage become more systematic, objective, and scientific thinkers–but only about tangible, visible things.

 
 Logical Principles 

  • Classification: organization into groups according to common property

 Example: Show 5 collies and 2 poodles. Ask, “Are there more collies or dogs?”

    • Kids in middle childhood know that collies are a subcategory of “dogs.”

 
 Essence and Change 

  • Identity: certain characteristics of an object remain the same even if other characteristics change
  • Examples: frozen water is still water; a butterfly was once a caterpillar; liquid in smaller glass is the same liquid

  

Essence and Change (cont.) 

  • Reversibility: reversing the process by which something was changed brings the original conditions
  • Example: if 5 + 9 = 14, then

   14 – 9 must equal 5! Also, imagine pouring H2O back in conservation task.

  

Essence and Change (cont.) 

  • Reciprocity is the principle that things may change in opposite ways, and thus balance each other out.
  • Example: A child states that the decreased height in the shorter is balanced out by its increased width.

Practical Applications 

  • The logical principles of concrete operational thought make learning easier and more fun.
  • Example: Children enjoy classifying cities, states, nations, etc., or knowing that a tadpole turns into a frog (identity).

  

Logic and Culture 

  • Lev Vygotsky believed that culture shapes cognition more than Piaget believed.

 
 

Logic and Culture: An Example 

  • Brazilian street children calculate complex computations not learned in school (see text p. 361)

 
 Moral Development 

  • Develops along with cognitive advances
  • Is shaped by culture and social influences
  • Middlechildhood is a key time for learning moral lessons

 
 

  • Kohlberg presented moral dilemmas and scored responses as:
    • Preconventional:rewards and punishment
    • Conventional: emphasis on social rules
    • Postconventional:moral principlesbeyondsocietal standards

Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development

 
 

Evaluating Kohlberg’s Theory   

  • Moral reasoning does seem to advance with advances in cognitive development.
  • Most children are preconventional before age 8, and conventional by age 9 years.

 
 

Criticisms of Kohlberg 

  • He may have underestimated the potential of school-age children.
  • His research was done on Western males.
  • It may be better to address practical issues such as feeding the poor (vs. hypothetical dilemmas).

 
 

Morality and Gender 

  • Carol Gilligan believed that females are more likely to develop a morality of care, in which nurturance and compassion are more important than a morality of justice, which emphasizes absolute judgments of right and wrong.

 
 B

Was Gilligan right? 

  • Research has found NO clear gender distinction regarding morality of care or justice (boys  
    and girls are  
    equally likely  
    to use each). 

 
 

Information Processing 

  • Analyzes how the mind analyzes, stores, and retrieves information.
  • Cognition becomes more efficient in middle childhood.

RUBBERBALL PRODUCTIONS

 
 

  • Sensory register: registers incoming stimuli for a split second
  • Working memory (short term): where current, conscious mental activity occurs
  • Long-term memory = stores information for minutes, hours, days, months, years
    • Unlimited capacity (!)

The Three “Parts” of Memory

 
 

Speed of Processing 

  • Speed of processing increases during middle childhood.
  • This allows a child to process more thoughts quickly, retain more thoughts in memory, and simultaneously process two different thoughts.

 
 

Automatization 

  • Certain skills become automatic during middle childhood (e.g., reading, writing).
  • This increases intellectual capacity and speed of processing.

 
 

Make it Real: Learning a Subject 

  • Do you find it easier to learn new material in your major field of interest than in a brand new subject?
  • Why do think that is?

 
 

Knowledge Base 

  • Knowledge base: a body of knowledge in an area that makes it easier to master new learning
  • Interest, motivation, and practice determine the size of the knowledge base.
    • Example: child chess experts, Pokémon experts

 
 

Knowledge of Pokémon and Wildlife

 
 

Control Processes 

  • Control processes regulate the analysis of information within the information processing system, and increase during middle childhood.
  • Examples: selective attention, retrieval strategies, metacognition

 
 

  • Selective attention: the ability to screen out irrelevant distractions and concentrate on a task
  • Metacognition: the ability to evaluate a task and determine how to accomplish it

 
 

Improvements in Control Processes

 
 

Language: New Vocabulary 

  • School-age kids learn up to 20 new words a day.
  • They understand metaphors and various uses of words.

 
 

    • Examples: egg, “walking on eggshells,” “last one is a rotten egg,” egg salad, etc.

 
 

Two “Codes” of Language 

  • Formal Code: used in school and other “formal” situations
    • Extensive vocabulary

 Complex syntax

 Lengthy sentences

  

  • Informal code: language used with friends

 Fewer words, simpler syntax

 Gestures and intonation  
convey meaning

 Two “Codes” of Language (cont.)

 Code Switching: A Life Saver 

  • Kids in middle childhood learn that certain words and phrases are okay with friends (informal code), but NOT with teachers, pastors, or other adults.

 Failure to learn this could result in punishment for calling the teacher “dude”!

 Socioeconomics and Language 

  • Lower-income children tend to have smaller vocabularies, simpler grammar, and more difficulty in reading.

 Two key explanations for this:

 Exposure to language

    • Parental expectations towards education

  

A Hopeful Study 

  • A study of low-income children demonstrated that exposure to language was a key predictor of language development.

 Real world application: TALK with kids!

 
 Tones and Tricks 

  • By 10 years of age, children learn to understand the nuances of language (tone, sarcasm, puns).

 Example: 10 year olds recognized that saying “I lost my stickers” in a happy voice is strange. 

 Make it Real: Education 

  • If you could design the ideal educational environment, what would it look like? Be specific. Think about class size, curriculum, sports, scheduling, etc.

 
 Teaching and Learning 

  • The curriculum for school-age children varies. Some possibilities include: reading, writing, math, arts, physical education, oral expression, religion.

 Funding for education also varies greatly.

 
 The Hidden Curriculum 

  • The hidden curriculum is the unofficial, unstated rules that influence learning.
  • Examples: discipline strategies, teacher salaries, class size, testing, schedules, emphasis on sports, segregation by ethnicity, physical condition of the school

 
 International Tests 

  • International comparisons of achievement have found that the United States is not among the top scoring developed nations.

  

Education in Japan 

  • Harold Stevenson (U of M) documented key aspects that help Japanese students:
    • Strong parental involvement
    • Teachers paid well, given time to prepare
    • Longer school days
    • Effort is highly valued

 
 

Education in Japan 

  • Unfortunately, the strong emphasis on education has caused a phobia of school for too many Japanese children.
  • The government is now working towards a more “relaxed education.”

 
 

Make it Real: The No Child Left Behind Act 

  • This Act requires yearly testing and a certain level of achievement in order for schools to receive federal funding.
  • Were you affected by this Act? Do you think it is a good idea? Why or why not?

 
 

The No Child Left Behind Act 

  • The Act is controversial. Some questions include:
    • What about the arts and physical education?
    • Does it punish schools that need funding the most?
    • Should graduation (or not) depend on a test?
    • What about special needs students?

 
 

The Reading Wars 

  • Phonics approach: teaching reading by first teaching the sounds of each letter
  • Whole-language: teaching reading by early use of all language skills–talking, listening, reading, and writing
  • BOTH approaches are valuable

 
 

Quiz: Which approach is this?

 
 

The Math Wars 

  • Math is an often feared subject, but one of utmost importance.
  • New curriculum discourages rote learning, emphasizing problem solving, and understanding of concepts.
  • The focus is on the thought process, not just the final answer.

 
 

Class Size 

  • Research on the relationship between class size and academic achievement has yielded mixed results.
  • Confoundingfactors include the types of students in the study, the qualifications of teachers, and suitable classrooms.

 
 

Bilingual Education 

  • About 4 million U.S. children are English-language learners (ELL).

 
 

JOHN O’BRIAN / CANADA IN STOCK, INC.

 
 

Bilingual Education (cont.) 
 

  • Middle childhood is an ideal time to teach a second language.
  • However, there is considerable debate about when and how to teach a second language.

 
 

Types of 2nd Language Programs 

  • Total immersion: all instruction in second language
  • Reverse immersion: instruction of basic subjects in first language, then second language is taught
  • Bilingual education: instruction in both languages

 
 

Berger:The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 12 

Types of 2nd Language Programs (cont.) 

  • Heritage language classes: after school classes to connect with native culture
  • English as a second language (ESL): exclusive English for a few months, in preparation for “regular” classes

 
 

Berger:The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 12 

Which type is best? 

  • Research in Canada found the total immersion approach to be very successful.
  • However, there is no one right answer. The goal is to help immigrant children preserve their culture, while learning the new language.

 

Thursday, 29 November 2012 13:54

Adolescence-Cognitive

 

Cognitive Development

Adolescent Thinking

Adolescent egocentrism

An aspect of adolescent thinking that leads young people (ages 10 to 14) to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others.

Adolescent Thinking

•     Personal fable

–     An adolescent’s belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, or experiences are unique, more wonderful or awful than anyone else’s.

•     Invincibility fable

–     An adolescent’s egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as unprotected sex, drug abuse, or high-speed driving.

Adolescent Thinking

Imaginary audience

The other people who, in an adolescent’s egocentric belief, are watching and taking note of his or her appearance, ideas, and behavior.

This belief makes many teenagers self-conscious

Adolescent Thinking

            Formal operational thought

Piaget’s fourth and final stage of cognitive development, characterized by more systematic logic and the ability to think about abstract ideas.

            Hypothetical thought

Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality. Reasoning about if-then propositions.

Adolescent Thinking

Deductive reasoning (top-down reasoning)

Reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, through logical steps, to figure out (deduce) specifics.

Inductive reasoning (bottom-up reasoning)

Reasoning from one or more specific experiences or facts to a general conclusion; may be less cognitively advanced than deduction.

Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning

Intuitive, Emotional Thought

•      Adolescents find it much easier and quicker to forget about logic and follow their impulses.

•     Dual-process model

–     The notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli.

Intuitive, Emotional Thought

Intuitive thought

Arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation, and is influenced by past experiences and cultural assumptions.

Analytic thought

Results from analysis, such as a systematic ranking of pros and cons, risks and consequences, possibilities and facts. Depends on logic and rationality.

Common Fallacies

Sunk cost fallacy

Mistaken belief that when a person has spent money, time or effort that cannot be recovered, they should continue to try to achieve the goal so that effort was not wasted.

    i.e. staying in a class that you are failing

Common Fallacies

Base rate neglect

A common fallacy in which a person ignores the overall frequency of a behavior or characteristic in making a decision.

    i.e. not wearing a bike helmet, despite statistics, until a friend is brain-damaged in a biking accident

Thinking About Religion

Most adolescents (71%) felt close to God

Most (78 %) were the same religion as their parents

Some adolescents (2%) are agnostic

Others (16%) are not religious

Adolescent religious beliefs tend to be egocentric, faith being a personal tool

Teaching and Learning

Secondary education

The period after primary education (elementary or grade school) and before tertiary education (college). It usually occurs from about age 12 to 18, although there is some variations by school and by nation.        

Middle school

A school for children in the grades between elementary and high school, usually grades 6-8.

Teaching and Learning

 Technology and Cognition

•      The digital divide is the gap between students who have access to computers and those who do not. In the United States and most developed nations, this gap has now been bridged due to computers in schools.

•      The Internet and other forms of electronic technology can accelerate learning, but what they have to teach may not always be beneficial.

The Dangers of Technology

•      Adolescent cognitive growth benefits from shared experiences and opinions.

•      Often communication via the Internet bolsters fragile self-esteem.

•      Adolescents sometimes share personal information online without thinking about the possible consequences.

•      Sexual abuse and addiction of technology can occur

The Dangers of Technology

Cyberbullying

•      occurs via Internet insults and rumors, texting, anonymous phone calls, and video embarrassment.

•      Some fear that the anonymity provided by electronic technology brings out the worst in people.

•      One expert on bullying believes that cyberbullying is similar to other forms, new in mode but not in intent or degree of harm.

The Dangers of Technology

Some teens use the Internet to pursue a secret action, such as extreme dieting, abusive prejudice or self-mutilation.

Cutting

An addictive form of self-mutilation that is most common among adolescent girls and that correlates with depression and drug abuse.

                  

The Transition to a New School

            Entering a New School

•      The transition from one school to another often impairs a young person’s ability to function and learn.

•      Changing schools just when the growth spurt is occurring and sexual characteristics are developing is bound to create stress.

Teaching and Learning

High School

•      In theory and sometimes in practice, high schools promote students’ analytic ability.

•      In the United States, an increasing number of high school students are enrolled in classes that are more rigorous and require them to pass externally scored exams.

•      Another manifestation of the trend toward more rigorous education is the greater number of requirements that all students must fulfill in order to receive an academic diploma.

Teaching and Learning

            High-stakes test

•      An evaluation that is critical in determining success or failure.

•      A single test that determines whether a student will graduate or be promoted

•      In 2009, 26 U.S. states required students to pass a high-stakes test in order to graduate.

Teaching and Learning

•      In the U.S., one result of pushing almost all high school students to pursue an academic curriculum is college preparedness.

•      Another result is that more students drop out of high school.

•      East Asian nations are moving in the opposite direction due to stressed out students.

Those Who Do Not Go To College

1/3 of U.S. high school students and 2/3 worldwide do not go to college

PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment)

–     A test designed to measure cognition needed in adult life.

Taken by many 15-year-olds in 50 countries to test how well they can apply what they have learned.  U.S. students tend to not do well.

Those Who Do Not Go To College

 

Thursday, 29 November 2012 11:55

study guide -- final

 

Religion_

5 Main world religions- Basic beliefs/practices of each

Christianity, Islam ( Muslim), Buddhism, Hinduism   

Agnostics

Atheist

Secular Humanism

Religious practice in America

Language—

ELL

ESL

Bi-lingual

Immersion

Sheltered

Ebonics

 Geography

Main regions of US  and characteristics  : West, Southwest, Midwest, Northeast, South

 Urban--- Suburban--- Rural- characteristics of each

Migration pattern in US

 

Agnostic ­­­­ One who believes that the existence of God can neither be proven nor unproven. Therefore they do not believe in a God or Goddess.

Atheist  One who positively does not believe in the existence of a God or Goddess.

   Buddhism  The fourth largest religion in the world. Founded in 535 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama, who was believed to be a prince of India. They believe in reincarnation and emphasize virtue, good conduct, morality, concentration, meditation, mental development, discernment, insight, wisdom, and enlightenment.

Catholic  Members comprise the largest Christian church in the world with over one billion adherents. Most believers live in Europe, South America, and North America.  The numbers of Catholics in Africa and Asia have been growing in recent years. Catholics believe that Jesus founded their Church and that the Apostle Peter was the first in the line of Bishops leading to the current Bishop of Vatican City. The Pope is the spiritual and political leader of Roman Catholics.

Members of the _ Roman Catholic Church   who believe that the Pope in Rome is God’s visible representative on earth and the rightful leader of Christianity.

­­­ Hinduism  The major religion of India and the third largest religion in the world, with over 750,000 adherents and as many as 1,000,000 in the United States. Unlike Christianity and Islam, Hinduism does not limit itself to a single religious book of writings, or to one God. Hinduism relies on a number of sacred writings and a number of gods. They believe that the goodness of an individual’s life will determine how he or she will be reincarnated.

 Islam The second largest religion in the world which is still growing in numbers and influence. “Islam” means to submit to the will of Allah or God and is derived from the same Arabic word as “peace.” Islam offers hope and salvation to the righteous and God-fearing individuals of all religions. Muslims believe that the Qur’an (Koran) is the final message delivered to his prophet Muhammad. The holy writing contains laws, moral precepts, and narratives guiding the lives of nearly one fifth of the world’s population.

    Allah  God in Arabic. It is the term used for God by Muslims and Arab Christians.

   Muslims   (also spelled Moslem) are the adherents of Islam. Estimates of Muslims are as high as 1.3 billion in the world, and the highest estimates of     

   Muslims in the United States are approximately 7,000,000. Only about 20% of the world’s Muslims live in the Middle East. India and Indonesia have   

   the largest numbers of Muslims, with about 175 million each.

Protestants  The general name given to an extremely diverse group of Christians, who may differ slightly or greatly from one another. Together, they form the second largest Christian group in the world after Roman Catholics. Protestants are centered primarily in Europe and North America. The hundreds of Protestant groups evolved out of the Reformation in the 1500s led by Martin Luther against the Catholic Church. Protestants share some important beliefs and values with Roman Catholics, such as the belief of only one God and the Trinity (God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit). They differ in their views of the authority of the Pope and the ways that people relate to God.

Secular humanists A non-religiously based philosophy promoting man as the measure of all things. Typically rejects the concept of a personal God and regards humans as supreme. Secular humanists tend to see God as a creation of man, rather than man being a creation of God.

Intelligent design             A theory that only an intelligent being could have created a natural world so complex and well ordered as ours. Some, if not most supporters of the evolution theory, view intelligent design as a new term for creationism or creation science.

  Creationist The term advocated by conservative Protestants who support the teaching of the Biblical account of creation in public schools in addition to or in place of the theory of evolution.

 

Wednesday, 28 November 2012 18:24

study guide for final

 

  • Naturalistic – Learning that occurs as children go through their daily activities
  • Informal—Learning situations that are initiated by adults- “Do you think you have enough cookies for all your friends-? Why don’t we count them”?
  • Structured Learning where the adult chooses the experience for the child and provides some direction to the child’s actions. Teacher has activity to teach about how colors mix.

section II
Fundamental Concepts and Skills

Unit 14
Parts and Wholes

The Importance of Parts and Wholes

The concept of parts and wholes is the bridge to understanding fractions.

Three Types of
Part/Whole Relationships

 1-Some things are made up of special parts

2- Groups of things can be divided into parts

3-Whole things can be divided into smaller parts

able to identify examples of Parts andWholes Activities:

Assessment and Evaluation

Does the child use the words part and whole?

Does the child use the words correctly?

Observe the child’s actions:

does she divide items equally to share with friends?

does she cut or break things into smaller pieces, if there are not enough for everyone?

does she realize when part of something is missing?

does she realize that people, animals, and things have parts that are unique to each?

Unit 16  Fundamental Concepts in Science

The fundamental concepts in math are also fundamental in science:

*One-to-one correspondence

*Number sense and counting

*Sets and classifying

*Comparing

*Shape

*Space

*Parts and wholes

*One-to-One Correspondence in Science :Example: match animals to their homes

Number Sense and Counting
in Science

Use the opportunity to count while doing science activities -- collect data.

Sequencing and Ordinal Position in Science : Science offers many opportunities to reinforce these concepts such as observing life cycles (stages of a butterfly)

Groups and Classifying in Science: Example: classify animals into groups: mammals, reptiles, amphibians

 Comparing in Science :Example: compare the size of plants as they grow

Shape in Science: Help children learn that most things have a shape which can help in identification

After children are used to identifying shapes, introduce bilateral symmetry their own bodies--butterfly wings

Space in Science :Use space words when teaching science to young children

Study travel in space---loading toys into a toybox--Do you think we have enough space?

Section III --Applying Fundamental Concepts, Attitudes, and Skills

Unit 17: Ordering, Seriation, and Patterning

These concepts are the basis of algebra.

Ordering Involves comparing more than two things or more than two sets--Placing things in a sequence from first to last

Seriation : Term used by Piaget that means ordering

Patterning--Related to ordering

children need a basic understanding of ordering to do patterning

Involves making or discovering auditory, visual, and motor regularities

Ordering and Patterning Words;  Next--Last--Biggest-Smallest--Thinnest--Fattest--Shortest--Tallest--Before-After

 Examples of Ordering and Patterning Activities: placing baby dolls in order from smallest to largest.

Assessment and Evaluation

Does the child use ordering and patterning words during daily activities?

Do patterns appear in the child’s art work?

Ask questions, make comments or suggestions such as: Which doll is taller?  Which block is shorter?  John is first in line  Line up from the shortest to the tallest.


Unit 18
Measurement: Volume, Weight, Length, and Temperature

Stages in which the Concepts of Measurement Develop

Sensorimotor and preoperational ( toddler and preschool) Play stage: Making comparisons

Child learns to use arbitrary units ( may measure with their hands, or a block)

Concrete operational ( elementary school age) =Child begins to see a need for standard units

Child begins to use and understand standard units

Examples of Measurement Activities: child determines who has the biggest scoop of cream-- The child uses his hand to measure a piece of tape.

Assessment and Evaluation

Does the child use the word measure in an adult manner?

Does the child use measuring tools in her play as she sees adults use them?

Can the child solve everyday problems by using informal measurement?

 

Wednesday, 28 November 2012 11:10

Powerpoint Links/Notes Final review

Click Link: School age biosocial

school Age Cognitive click here

click link for School Age_ Social/Emotional

  Chapter 14-Adolescence-Biosocial click here

Chapter 16-Psychosocialclick here

Chapter 15-Adolescence:( Full Notes- No link)

Cognitive Development

Adolescent Thinking

Adolescent egocentrism

An aspect of adolescent thinking that leads young people (ages 10 to 14) to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others.

Adolescent Thinking

•     Personal fable

–     An adolescent’s belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, or experiences are unique, more wonderful or awful than anyone else’s.

•     Invincibility fable

–     An adolescent’s egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as unprotected sex, drug abuse, or high-speed driving.

Adolescent Thinking

Imaginary audience

The other people who, in an adolescent’s egocentric belief, are watching and taking note of his or her appearance, ideas, and behavior.

This belief makes many teenagers self-conscious

Adolescent Thinking

            Formal operational thought

Piaget’s fourth and final stage of cognitive development, characterized by more systematic logic and the ability to think about abstract ideas.

            Hypothetical thought

Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality. Reasoning about if-then propositions.

Adolescent Thinking

Deductive reasoning (top-down reasoning)

Reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, through logical steps, to figure out (deduce) specifics.

Inductive reasoning (bottom-up reasoning)

Reasoning from one or more specific experiences or facts to a general conclusion; may be less cognitively advanced than deduction.

Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning

Intuitive, Emotional Thought

•      Adolescents find it much easier and quicker to forget about logic and follow their impulses.

•     Dual-process model

–     The notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli.

Intuitive, Emotional Thought

Intuitive thought

Arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation, and is influenced by past experiences and cultural assumptions.

Analytic thought

Results from analysis, such as a systematic ranking of pros and cons, risks and consequences, possibilities and facts. Depends on logic and rationality.

Common Fallacies

Sunk cost fallacy

Mistaken belief that when a person has spent money, time or effort that cannot be recovered, they should continue to try to achieve the goal so that effort was not wasted.

    i.e. staying in a class that you are failing

Common Fallacies

Base rate neglect

A common fallacy in which a person ignores the overall frequency of a behavior or characteristic in making a decision.

    i.e. not wearing a bike helmet, despite statistics, until a friend is brain-damaged in a biking accident

Thinking About Religion

Most adolescents (71%) felt close to God

Most (78 %) were the same religion as their parents

Some adolescents (2%) are agnostic

Others (16%) are not religious

Adolescent religious beliefs tend to be egocentric, faith being a personal tool

Teaching and Learning

Secondary education

The period after primary education (elementary or grade school) and before tertiary education (college). It usually occurs from about age 12 to 18, although there is some variations by school and by nation.        

Middle school

A school for children in the grades between elementary and high school, usually grades 6-8.

Teaching and Learning

 Technology and Cognition

•      The digital divide is the gap between students who have access to computers and those who do not. In the United States and most developed nations, this gap has now been bridged due to computers in schools.

•      The Internet and other forms of electronic technology can accelerate learning, but what they have to teach may not always be beneficial.

The Dangers of Technology

•      Adolescent cognitive growth benefits from shared experiences and opinions.

•      Often communication via the Internet bolsters fragile self-esteem.

•      Adolescents sometimes share personal information online without thinking about the possible consequences.

•      Sexual abuse and addiction of technology can occur

The Dangers of Technology

Cyberbullying

•      occurs via Internet insults and rumors, texting, anonymous phone calls, and video embarrassment.

•      Some fear that the anonymity provided by electronic technology brings out the worst in people.

•      One expert on bullying believes that cyberbullying is similar to other forms, new in mode but not in intent or degree of harm.

The Dangers of Technology

Some teens use the Internet to pursue a secret action, such as extreme dieting, abusive prejudice or self-mutilation.

Cutting

An addictive form of self-mutilation that is most common among adolescent girls and that correlates with depression and drug abuse.

                  

The Transition to a New School

            Entering a New School

•      The transition from one school to another often impairs a young person’s ability to function and learn.

•      Changing schools just when the growth spurt is occurring and sexual characteristics are developing is bound to create stress.

Teaching and Learning

High School

•      In theory and sometimes in practice, high schools promote students’ analytic ability.

•      In the United States, an increasing number of high school students are enrolled in classes that are more rigorous and require them to pass externally scored exams.

•      Another manifestation of the trend toward more rigorous education is the greater number of requirements that all students must fulfill in order to receive an academic diploma.

Teaching and Learning

            High-stakes test

•      An evaluation that is critical in determining success or failure.

•      A single test that determines whether a student will graduate or be promoted

•      In 2009, 26 U.S. states required students to pass a high-stakes test in order to graduate.

Teaching and Learning

•      In the U.S., one result of pushing almost all high school students to pursue an academic curriculum is college preparedness.

•      Another result is that more students drop out of high school.

•      East Asian nations are moving in the opposite direction due to stressed out students.

Those Who Do Not Go To College

1/3 of U.S. high school students and 2/3 worldwide do not go to college

PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment)

–     A test designed to measure cognition needed in adult life.

Taken by many 15-year-olds in 50 countries to test how well they can apply what they have learned.  U.S. students tend to not do well.

Those Who Do Not Go To College

 

Tuesday, 27 November 2012 12:50

123 class only-- notes: chap 10-11

l123--Music and Movement

In Brief

If we, as educators, are to address the whole child—the thinking, feeling, moving human beings who come to us for their early education—we must also teach concepts as a whole rather than as separate pieces of information falling under the headings of segregated study units. As such, movement must play a vital role in the learning process. g

Terms to Know


Whole child

Kinesthetic mode

Bodily/kinesthetic intelligence

Content areas

Integrated approach to literacy

Fingerplays

Quantitative ideas


Key Questions

Q. Cite three reasons why movement should be part of the learning process.

A. Possibilities include (1) To impact the whole child; (2) To address the kinesthetic mode of learning, or the bodily/kinesthetic intelligence; (3) To stimulate multimodal learning; (4) To facilitate class management; (5) To provide an effective means of evaluation; and (6) To provide a positive attitude toward learning.

Q. What do art and movement have in common?

A. They both develop motor skills, develop hand-eye coordination, and allow self-expression. Also, concepts like shape, size, spatial relationships, and line are part of both subjects.

Q. What are the four aspects of the language arts?

A. Listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

Q. How does talking about experiences, depicting them through movement, and then discussing the movement contribute to language development?

A. It requires children to make connections between their cognitive, affective, and physical domains.

Q. What are the math concepts appropriate for exploration with young children, all of which can be experienced through movement?

A. Quantitative ideas, number awareness and recognition, counting, basic geometry, and simple addition and subtraction.

Q. Which quantitative concepts are related to the movement element of force?

A. Light and heavy.

Q. How does the execution of locomotor, nonlocomotor, manipulative, gymnastic, and dance skills relate to science?

A. Any time children move, they are learning something about the functions of the human body.

Q. What is one aspect of self-awareness that fits under social studies ? What role can movement play in exploring it?

A. Emotion. Children can act out various emotions. Movement gives them “permission” to express themselves.

Art & Movement

Share in Common:

• Development of motor skills

• Eye-hand coordination

• Self-expression!

• Concepts such as

            – Shape

            – Size

            – Spatial relationships

            – Line

Movement & Language Arts:

• Play essential roles in life

• Involve rhythm

• Are forms of communication!

The foundations of math are grounded in concrete experience such as the exploration of objects and gradual understanding of their properties and relationships. The cognitive concepts . . . of classification, seriation (ordering), numbers, time, and space all contribute to the gradual acquisition of math concepts.”


Quantitative Concepts


big & little

long & short

high & low

wide & narrow

late & early

first & last

middle

once

longer than

tall & short

light & heavy

together

same length

highest

lowest

few

bunch

group

pair

many

more

most

twice


Science & Movement

Are Both About:

• Exploration

• Investigation

• Problem solving

• Discovery

• Learning by doing!


Science Themes

Explored in Classrooms:

•           The human body, including

            •           body parts & their functions

            •           the senses

            •           hygiene

            •           nutrition

•           Seasons

•           Weather

•           Animals

•           Plants

•           The ocean

Exploring Simple Science:

• Flotation

• Gravity

• Machinery

• Magnetics

• Balance & Stability

• Action & Reaction

• Electricity

Social Studies Themes

Explored in Classrooms:

•           Self-awareness

•           Families & Friends

•           Transportation

•           Occupations

•           Holidays & Celebrations

•           Multicultural Education

chapter 11           Using Movement and Music for Transitions

Chapter Outline

§ Arrival

§ Transitions within the Classroom

§ Transitions to Outside the Classroom

§ Cleanup

§ Nap Time

§ Departure

In Brief

Although generally not given as much consideration as other facets of the child’s early education, transitions do offer opportunity for learning, and movement and music are the perfect instructional tools.

Key Questions

Q. Cite four reasons why movement activities and music are beneficial transitional tools.

A. Possibilities include (1) Transitions already involve moving from one place to another, (2) Music is mood-altering, (3) Movement and music can make transitions pleasurable experiences, (4) Movement activities and songs provide a focus for children during transitions, (5) Movement activities and songs hold the attention of waiting children, (6) They are easily tied to curriculum content, and (7) Transitions present opportunities for additional experience with movement and music.

Q. When a shift in activity is forthcoming, what must teachers be sure to give the children?

A. Ample notice.

Q. Why is transition to departure important?

A. It helps achieve closure, which brings satisfaction.

 

Transition Tips

•          Remain calm and collected. •        Make necessary preparations in advance.

•          If the transition involves taking turns, be sure the same children aren’t always chosen to go first.

Lets try

chapter 12  Bringing Movement Education Outdoors                              

Chapter Outline


§  Playground Space

§  Climbing Structures

Imagery

Elements of Movement

§  Balance Beams

Imagery

Elements of Movement

§  Tunnels

Imagery

Elements of Movement

§  Platforms

Imagery

Elements of Movement

§ Tires

Imagery

Elements of Movement

§ Sand

§ Riding Toys

Imagery

Elements of Movement

§ Slides

Imagery

Elements of Movement

§ Swings

Imagery

Elements of Movement


In Brief

There’s no reason why a child’s education should take place indoors only. The outdoors provides a great opportunity for learning not only about life in general but also about movement. The playground is the obvious and natural choice for movement activities that require more space than what may be available indoors—and for many other facets of the movement program. On the other hand, bringing movement education outdoors helps ensure creative use of the playground, which can enrich the children’s development.

Terms to Know

Play leader

Static playgrounds

Divergent play experiences

Key Questions

Q. In what ways do traditional playgrounds and their traditional uses limit the children’s development?

A. Because they are static, traditional playgrounds and their uses don’t challenge the children and tend to limit their imaginative play.

Q. In addition to motor learning, what can the activities suggested in this chapter offer children?

A. They—and others like them—can provide children with outlets for creativity, self-expression, and problem solving.

Q. Name three alternatives to balance beams.

A. Skinny paths, narrow planks, and the edge of a sandbox, if wide enough.

Q. Cite four concepts, in addition to balance, that can be explored with the use of a balance beam.

A. Over, onto, off, and along (or across).

Q. What two types of skills are easily explored on platforms?

A. Balance and nonlocomotor skills.

Q. What two types of play does sand lend itself to? Which major content area is explored through experimentation with sand?

A. Constructive and fantasy. Science.

Q. What is often the most static piece of equipment on a typical playground? Why?

A. The slide, because it traditionally has few uses.

Q. A sense of one of the body’s midlines is developed through what action on which piece of playground equipment?

A. Pumping a swing.

“[The] adult who remains aloof from play misses opportunities for engaging with and learning from children.”

 

Sunday, 25 November 2012 13:53

study guide, final-schoolage and adolescence

 

 School age- be able to relate these concepts/terms to school age games:

Concrete logical reasoning

5-7 shift

Humor

Metacognition-/ Strategic thinking/planning

Importance of peers

Society of children

ADHD

Dyslexia

Inclusion of children with special needs

Obesity

 Allergie/Asthma

Prosocial behaviors:    Sharing/ cooperation/turn-taking/ loosing & wining with control/  Managing disappointment/frustrations - Temper control

Morality: Pre Conventional/ Conventional/ Post Conventional

Adolescence

Hall: Storm and Stress

Puberty:

Age of onset, boys vs girls

Trend toward earlier onset of puberty

Growth spurt

Hormones: Androgens (testosterone)/ Estrogens

Primary vs secondary characteristics

General sequence of development for boys and girls

Menarche/ Spermarche

Formal operations

      Abstract thinking/Hypothetical thinking

      Idealism

      Egocentric thought

      Imaginary audience

      Personal fable

      Invincibility /

     Reckless behavior ( Drugs/alcoholSexual behavior

Identity vs Role Confusion

Moratorium/Identity diffusion/ foreclosure/ achievement/Negative  identity

Rebellion

Self-esteem

Peer group/ peer pressure

Anorexia nervosa

OVERALL

Nature vs Nurture

 Basics of Erikson’s stages

 Basics of Piaget’s stages

An understanding of the 3 main domains of development/ and be able to classify/identify behaviors under each domain

Sunday, 25 November 2012 12:12

122 class: Museum trip info


Gallery Hours

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Open

10:00 AM

10:00 AM

10:00 AM

10:00 AM

10:00 AM

10:00 AM

10:00 AM

Close

6:00 PM

5:00 PM

5:00 PM

5:00 PM

5:00 PM

8:00 PM

8:00 PM


Admission

Adults (13 and up)

Juniors (3-12)* &
Seniors (65+)

Members
Become a member ›

Gallery Admission

$11.75

$9.75

FREE

Gallery Admission + 1 Giant Dome Theater Show

(IMAX® Film or Digital Show)

$15.75

$12.75

Adults $10.75
Juniors & Seniors $9.00

Add an additional Giant Dome Theater show

$6.00

*Kids under age 3 are free, but must sit in the lower left section of the theater.

The Reuben H. Fleet Science Center is located in the heart of Balboa Park at the east end of the El Prado pathway, next to the majestic Bea Evenson Fountain.

Balboa Park is the largest urban cultural park in the United States. The Fleet shares the park with 14 other museums, many highly regarded performing arts venues, gardens and the world famous San Diego Zoo. Find more information on events and amenities in Balboa Park, visit the Balboa Park website at www.balboapark.org.

Conveniently situated in central San Diego, the Fleet is minutes from downtown and the beach and is accessible from San Diego's major highways. Get easy, door-to-door driving directions from Google »

Parking

All parking is free in Balboa Park. The Reuben H. Fleet Science Center lot is located on the south side of the building, just steps from the entrance, accessible at Space Theater Way off of Park Boulevard. Additional lots are located throughout Balboa Park. View map of Balboa Park.

The Fleet is located at

1875 El Prado
Balboa Park
San Diego, CA 92101
(619) 238-1233

, 1 hour 56 mins

In current traffic: 1 hour 56 mins

I-8 W

Driving directions to 1075 El Prado, San Diego, CA 92101

3D2D

- more info »

California 86

El Centro, CA 92243

1. Head west on Adams Ave toward 7th St

0.8 mi

2. Turn left onto N Imperial Ave

1.4 mi

3. Slight right to merge onto I-8 W

99.7 mi

4. Take exit 14A for CA-125 N toward CA-94 S

0.2 mi

5. Keep left at the fork, follow signs for CA-125 S and merge onto CA-125 S

2.3 mi

6. Take exit 15 on the left to merge onto CA-94 W/Martin Luther King Jr Fwy

8.3 mi

7. Take exit 1A to merge onto I-5 N/San Diego Fwy toward Los Angeles/San Diego Fwy

1.4 mi

8. Take exit 16B for 6th Avenue toward Downtown

0.2 mi

9. Turn right onto 6th Ave

0.5 mi

10. Turn right onto El Prado

Destination will be on the right

0.2 mi

1075 El Prado

San Diego, CA 92101

Family Science Saturdays

Learn Together

Upcoming Dates:
Saturday, Dec 1, 2012 1:00 pm to 3:00 pm
Saturday, Dec 8, 2012 1:00 pm to 3:00 pm
Saturday, Dec 15, 2012 1:00 pm to 3:00 pm

   

 

Join us in the Tinkering Studio for hands-on building fun each Saturday, 1 p.m. to 3 p.m., led by our tinkering gurus. Visitors work together on creative activities designed to spark curiosity and foster exploration. For example:  make origami and Spirograph artwork; design and construct simple mechanical toys like tops, catapults and musical instruments; build marble "roller coasters" using tubes and ramps, or create "digital bling" using colorful LED lights, batteries and accessories. Activities are included with admission!

At Family Science Saturdays in November, we’ll explore materials science. Explore the surprising and fun properties of packing peanuts, plastics and other materials. Discover novel ways of using ordinary materials to create extraordinary objects.

In December, zip on over to the Tinkering Studio and take the Zip Line Challenge. Create your own contraption that will slip and slide down our zip line course to complete increasingly difficult challenges. 

There is a movie theater that has different movies showing on the weekend—Here are the movies that may be showing:

IMAX Films and Digital Shows

Explore the ends of the Earth, dive deep into the ocean, float through outer space—all without leaving the comfort of your seat. Inside the Fleet's iconic Heikoff Dome Theater, IMAX® movies and Digital Shows come to life, immersing you on a 360-degree tour of places you've only imagined.

With a 76-foot wraparound movie screen and 16,000 watts of digital surround sound, the theater is a marvel of science itself. Our state-of-the-art, full dome digital projection system produces crystal clear images nearly eight stories high. It's a top attraction in Balboa Park and one of the most technologically advanced facilities of it's kind.

Learn More

Let It Snow [Digital]

A Holiday Treat for the Whole Family

Learn More

Tales of the Maya Skies [Digital]

Journey Back in Time and Discover an Ancient Civilization

 
Tuesday, 20 November 2012 18:27

123 class only- notes 6-9

chapter 6 The When, Where, and What of Movement Sessions

Chapter Outline

§ Scheduling

§ Space

§ Group Size

§ Attire

§ Equipment and Props

Balls

Hoops

Beanbags

Streamers

Scarves

Rhythm Sticks

Parachutes

In Brief

This chapter offers answers to some of the most commonly asked questions concerning the planning of movement sessions. Teachers who are just beginning to consider implementing a movement program—whether they’re experienced teachers or new—want to know (1) how to fit movement into the schedule, (2) how much space is required, (3) how many children to work with, (4) what the children should wear, and (5) what kind of materials are necessary.

Terms to Know


Group time

Group size

Unrestrictive clothing


Key Questions

Q. What are some of the factors that will influence decisions about the movement program?

A. The ages of the children, the number of children, the number of adults who’ll be working with you and the children, the space available, the equipment available, funds that may or may not be available for purchasing equipment, and the human resources available for constructing equipment.

Q. Why is it helpful to schedule movement sessions for the same time each day or week?

A. Because young children are comforted by predictability.

Q. Why is time that may already be scheduled for large group activity appropriate for movement sessions?

A. Because these periods typically alternate with quieter activities, as well as with periods when the children have had a chance to work or be alone.

Q. What is the most significant factor in determining the length of movement sessions?

A. The children’s ages.

Q. What should be your first consideration in determining the size of the group you work with?

A. The size of the space available to you.

Q. What are some of the reasons children should be encouraged to move in bare feet?

A. The feet have sentient qualities and can be used to grip the floor for strength and balance. The separate parts of the feet can be more easily felt and used when bare. Bare feet that accidentally kick or step on somebody are less likely to hurt.

Q. Name four benefits of working with equipment and/or props.

A. (1) Equipment and objects can allow new movement possibilities, (2) manipulating objects requires different levels of coordination, (3) children will become comfortable with objects, and (4) focusing on the movement of a prop helps alleviate self-consciousness.

Sample of a half-day program

8:50–9:00                                Arrival.

9:00–9:20                                Group Time.

9:20–9:40                                Snack.

9:40–10:30                  Activity Time.

10:30–10:40                Cleanup Time.

10:40–11:00                Small Group Activity.

11:00–11:40                Outdoor Time.

11:40–11:55                Group Time.

11:55–12:00                Departure.

Choosing and Using Space

for Movement

•           Find—or create—the most open space possible.

•           Find creative ways to use the space available.

•           Avoid cement or concrete flooring if possible.

•           Find an area with as few distractions as possible.

•           Take all necessary safety precautions.

chapter 7 Choosing and Using Music

Chapter Outline

§ Choosing Music

Styles

Periods

Nationalities

Textures

§ Using Music

Musical Experiences

Musical Elements

In Brief

For young children, music without movement is nearly impossible; they tend to “listen” with their whole bodies. Similarly, a movement program that doesn’t include music seems incomplete. But what “kind” of music? Where is the best place to find it? And, once found, how should it be used? These questions are answered in this chapter.

Terms to Know


Styles of music

Texture

Tempo

Accelerando

Ritardando

Volume

Crescendo

Decrescendo/Diminuendo

Staccato

Legato

Pitch

Phrase

Form

Rhythm


Key Questions

Q. What are two important factors to bear in mind when selecting music?

A. Quality and variety.

Q. What are the five aspects of musical experiences that should be part of every child’s life?

A. Listening, moving, singing, playing, and creating.

Q. What is the difference between listening and hearing?

A. Hearing requires no concentration, but to really listen, one must pay attention and focus the mind on what is being heard.

Q. What is the best way to introduce the musical elements of tempo and volume?

A. By contrasting the extremes.

Q. How can you best ensure that the children are exposed to a variety of musical elements?

A. By choosing a variety of musical styles, periods, nationalities, and textures to play for the children.

Music, for young children:

•          Can’t be considered as separate from movement

•          Is not limited to the auditory sense

•          Must be experienced as a whole, through

            – listening

            – singing

            – moving

            – playing

            – creating

Providing Musical Variety

through Different:

Styles

Periods

Nationalities

Textures

Relationship of Musical Elements

to Movement Elements:

Tempo = Time

Volume = Force

Articulation = Flow

Pitch = Levels (Space)

Music’s Role in the Movement Program

•           Provides an extra spark

•           Contributes new ideas

•           Sets the proper mood: energizing or relaxing

•           Helps make abstract concepts—like slow and fast—more concrete

part three

Facilitating Movement Experiences

chapter 8  Teaching Methods

Chapter Outline

§ The Direct Approach

§ Guided Discovery

§ Exploration

In Brief

Which teaching method(s) can best convey the subject matter being taught in a movement program for young children? This chapter reviews three commonly implemented styles of movement instruction and weighs the pros and cons of each.

Terms to Know

Direct approach

Guided discovery

Spectrum of Teaching Styles

Exploration

Key Questions

Q. Cite at least three benefits of the command style of teaching.

A. Possibilities include (1) Modeling is often the best means of helping some children achieve success. (2) Imitating helps children learn to follow directions and physically replicate what their eyes see. (3) Results are produced immediately. (4) Teachers can instantly ascertain if a child is having difficulty following directions or producing the required response. (5) It takes little time to show the children how the movements are to be performed. (6) The direct approach makes conformity and uniformity possible.

Q. Why is guided discovery also referred to as convergent problem solving?

A. The teacher has a specific task in mind and leads the children through a series of questions and challenges toward its discovery. That is, the teacher guides the students as they converge on the answer sought.

Q. What are the two techniques suggested for designing a series of questions and challenges that lead the students to the desired outcome in guided discovery?

A. (1) Working backward, beginning with the final question (the one that will produce the targeted answer) and (2) writing up a series of commands, as though using a direct approach, and then converting the commands to questions.

Q. Why is exploration also known as divergent problem solving?

A. It results in a variety of responses to each challenge.

Q. What are the three aspects involved in extending exploration?

A. (1) Using the elements of movement to vary the way in which skills are performed, (2) reacting to the children’s responses, and (3) putting parameters on the exercise.

Q. What type of encouragement should be offered as the children are exploring movement possibilities?

A. Neutral feedback.

Q. What are the major disadvantages of teaching “to the middle”?

A. Less-skilled students always lag behind, caught up in a cycle of failure and lack of self-confidence, while highly skilled children become bored by lack of sufficient challenge.

Teaching Methods

• The Direct Approach:

command style

• Guided Discovery:

convergent problem solving

• Exploration:

divergent problem solving

Advantages of Direct Approach


• Uses time efficiently

• Produces immediate results

• Produces uniform movement

• Teaches children to replicate movements

• Teaches children to follow directions

• Lends itself to immediate evaluation


Disadvantages of the Direct Approach

• Doesn’t allow for creativity and

self-expression

• Doesn’t allow individual differences in development and ability levels

• Focuses on the product rather than the process

Advantages of Indirect Approaches


•           Stimulate cognitive processes and enhance critical thinking

•           Develop self-responsibility

•           Broaden the movement vocabulary

•           Reduce fear of failure and produce a sense of security

•           Allow for individual differences among children

•           Allow participation and success for all children

•           Develop self-confidence

•           Promote independence

•           Develop children’s patience with themselves and their peers

•           Lead to acceptance of others’ ideas


Disadvantages of Indirect Approaches

•     Require more time

•         Require patience and practice by the teacher

chapter 9 Creating and Maintaining a Positive Learning Environment

Chapter Outline

§ Tried and Tested Teaching Tips

Establish Rules

Establish Boundaries

Use Positive Challenges

Make Corrections Creatively

Use Honest Praise and Positive Reinforcement

Use Your Voice as a Tool

Use Familiar Imagery

Monitor Energy Levels

Be Flexible

§ What about the Nonparticipant?

§ What about Disruptive Behavior?

§ The Role of Relaxation

In Brief

Fear of losing control of the children is one reason why educators and caregivers choose not to include movement in the program. This chapter addresses the issue head-on, offering recommendations to avoid disruptive situations and, if necessary, to handle them.


Personal space

Auditory or visual signal

Boundary

Positive challenge

Praise addict

Nonparticipant

Disruptive behavior


Key Questions

Q. What is the foremost factor in ensuring there’ll be few behavior problems?

A. A success-oriented program.

Q. What are the two rules that should be part of every movement program?

A. (1) We will respect one another’s personal space. (2) We will participate with as little noise as possible.

Q. Why are boundaries sometimes necessary in a gymnasium or exceptionally large room?

A. Too much space can be overwhelming to some children.

Q. What are three alternatives to singling out children who have responded incorrectly?

A. (1) Asking children responding correctly to demonstrate, (2) verbally describing the desired response, and (3) reissuing the challenge.

Q. What are two alternatives to false praise and value judgments?

A. Recognition and encouragement.

Q. What should be the primary role of nonparticipating children?

A. That of audience.

Q. What specific technique is effective both when disruptive behavior is used to get attention and once a child is asked to take a time out?

A. Ignoring.

Q. Cite three reasons why relaxation should be part of a movement program.

A. The reasons are (1) alternating relaxing activities with vigorous ones will help ensure a manageable environment; (2) relaxation provides an opportunity to experience motionlessness in contrast to movement; (3) relaxation helps prepare children for slow and sustained movement, which requires greater control than fast; and (4) relaxation helps calm the children.

Tried & Tested Teaching Tips

1. Establish rules.

2. Establish boundaries.

3. Use positive challenges.

4. Make corrections creatively.

5. Use honest praise/positive reinforcement.

6. Use your voice as a tool.

7. Use familiar imagery.

8. Monitor energy levels.  9. Be flexible.

Tips for the Shy Child

•           Sit with the child for a few minutes at least once a day.

•           Invite another child to join the activity.

•           Gradually add more children to the small group.

•           Continue daily small-group activities while also making an effort to involve the child in total group times.

•           Reinforce any involvement in group activities.

Eva Essa

Benefits of

Including Relaxation

1.         When used alternately with vigorous activities, helps prevent wall bouncing

2.         Chance to experience motionlessness

3.         Preparation for slow, sustained movement

4.         Helps wind them down

5.         Enhances ability to imagine

6.         Exposure to quiet, peaceful

 

Monday, 19 November 2012 14:48

school age jokes

What time is it when you have to go the dentist?

Tooth Hurty!

Who likes to drink cocoa?

A Cocoanut!

Submitted by Jennifer, age 9

What did one eye say to the other eye?

Between you and me, something smells.

Submitted by Blake, age 6

What did the teacher say when it rained cats and dogs?

Be careful not to step on a poodle!

Submitted by Kelly, age 12

What is even smarter than a talking bird?

A Spelling Bee!

Submitted by Rebecca, age 11

Who is the greatest underwater spy?

James POND!

Submitted by Treven, age 10

What sickness does a martial artist have?

Kung FLU!

What happens if you take a one hundred foot dive into a glass of gingerale?

Nothing! It's a SOFT drink!

Why did the students eat their homework?

Because the teacher said it was a piece of cake!

Submitted by Alexandra, age 12

What kind of a storm is always in a rush?

A Hurry Cain!

Submitted by Clouie, age 10

Why are there gates around graveyards?

Because everybody is DYING to get in!

Submitted by Kathleen, age 11

What do you get if you mix a car, a fly, and a dog?

A flying carpet!

What do you call a worm with no teeth?

A gummy worm!

Submitted by David, age 6

What lies on the bottom of the ocean and shakes?

A nervous wreck!

Submitted by Caitlin, age 9

How did the telephone propose to the lady?

It gave her a ring!

Submitted by Melissa, age 10

What pet does everyone have?

An Armpet!

submitted by Emman, age 9

What did the nut say when it sneezed?

"Cashew"!

Submitted by Emmy, age 7

What table can we eat?

A vegeTABLE!

Submitted by Emma, age 12

Which is faster: Hot or Cold?

Hot, 'cause you can catch a cold!

Submitted by Nicholas, age 12

Why did the man with one hand cross the road?

To get to the second-hand shop!

Submitted by Rameez, age 11

Why does "A" look like a flower?

Because "B" follows it!

Submitted by Lydia, age 9

Why did the boy tiptoe towards the medicine cabinet?

Because he didn't want to wake the sleeping pills!

Submitted by Nayantara, age 13

What did Cinderella say to the photographer?

I want my "prints" back!

Submitted by Annie, age 12

What is a cannibal's favourite game?

Swallow the Leader!

Why couldn't the teddy bear eat his dessert?

He was stuffed!

Submitted by Christina, age 12

What does a farmer use to count his cattle?

A COWculator!

Submitted by Christina, age 12

Why didn't the skeleton dance?

Because he had no body to dance with!

Submitted by Taylor, age 11

Why did the boy put lipstick on his head?

Because he wanted to make up his mind!

Submitted by Kirsten, age 13

What happened to the dog that swallowed a watch?

It got ticks!

Submitted by Ashleigh, age 10

Who is the ruler of the beach?

The Sand-witch!

Submitted by Adam, age 8

Why did the scarecrow win the Nobel Prize?

Because he was out standing in his field!

Submitted by Matt

Which cat would you never play poker with?

bnA Cheetah!

Submitted by Elaina, age 11

Why did the kid cross the park?

To get to the other slide!

Submitted by Claudia, age 7

Why couldn't the pirates play cards?

Because the captain was sitting on the deck!

Submitted by Madison, age 9

What do you get when you a cross a vampire with a snowman?

Frostbite!

What do you call a fish without eyes?

A fsh!

Submitted by Leah, age 11

Why did the child bring his dad to school?

'Cause he had a POP quiz!

Submitted by Leah, age 11

When a duck has no money, what does it tell the waiter?

"Put it on my bill!"

Submitted by Jake, age 10

Why doesn't Dracula have friends?

'Cause he's a pain in the neck!

Submitted by Lauren, age 10

What did the ocean say to the beach?

Nothing. It just waved!

Submitted by Sarah, age 13

Why was the baby ant confused?

Because all of his uncles were ants!

Submitted by Allison, age 11

Why can't a nose be twelve inches long?

Because then it'd be a foot!

Submitted by Jercel

When is a door not a door?

When it's aJAR!

Why do people carry umbrellas?

Because umbrellas can't walk!

Submitted by Jessica, age 11

Why do sharks swim in salt water?

Because pepper water makes them sneeze!

Submitted by Manisha, age 12

What is in a ghost's nose?

BOO-gers!

Submitted by Mateo, age 10

What did the man say when the church burnt down?

Holy Smoke!

Submitted by Parker

Why can't you take a picture of a man with a wooden leg?

Because a wooden leg is not made like a camera!

Submitted by Ramona

Why can't you tell jokes to an egg?

Because it will crack up!

Submitted by Layla, age 7

Why didn't the third grader go the pirate movie?

Because it was rated "ARRR"!

Submitted by Hannah, age 8

What has wheels and flies?

A garbage truck!

Submitted by Daren

Why did the grizzly put on pyjamas?

Because he was bear naked!

Submitted by Jeannet, age 11

What gives you the power to walk through walls?

A door!

Submitted by Bray Bray, age 13

Why was the cucumber mad?

Because it was in a pickle!

Submitted by Natalie, age 11

Why did the bubblegum cross the road?

Because it was stuck to the chicken's foot!

Submitted by Brezdin, age 16

Why was the broom late for work?

Because it over-swept!

Submitted by Lashaunta

What room has no walls?

A mushroom!

Submitted by Jaiya, age 9

Who was the best dancer at the monster dance?

The boogie man!

Submitted by Lashaunta

What did the mayonnaise say to the fridge?

Close the door, I'm dressing!

What would the U.S. be called if everyone in it drove pink cars?

A pink car-nation!

Why was the ketchup last in the race?

It couldn't ketch-up!

Why did the cabbage win the race?

Because it was a-head!

What did the fridge say to the mayonnaise?

Don't come in, I've got a cold!

Why did the famous movie stars go to the river?

They wanted to give out some otter-graphs!

Where do you leave your dog while you shop?

In a barking lot!

What would the U.S. be called if everyone in it lived in their cars?

An in-car-nation!

What would the U.S. be called if everyone in it lived in their cars?

A re-in-car-nation!

How does the biologist like to communicate?

With his cell phone!

When do parents complain because of eye pain?

When they have their eye on you!

What's brown and sticky?

A stick!

Why did Superman cross the road?

To get to the supermarket!

Submitted by Richard, age 10

What did the football coach say to the banker?

I want my quarter back!

Submitted by Yawnie

Why didn't the skeleton cross the road?

'Cause he didn't have the guts!

What's green and sings?

Elvis Parsley!

Submitted by Chris, age 11

Why is six afraid of seven?

Because seven "ate" nine!

Submitted by Tommy, age 9

 

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