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Robert Gallegos

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Monday, 30 April 2012 18:23

CIS 214 Final Exam Study Guide

CIS 214 Final Exam Study Guide

Know the following:

1.      The ALTER statement is used to change the structure of a MySQL database table, such as adding a new column of data.

2.      With a little help from PHP and MySQL, an HTML <input> tag can be used to upload image files.

3.      The superglobal variable $_FILES is where PHP stores information about an uploaded file.

4.      The standard PHP function move_uploaded_ file() allows you to move files around on the web server and is critical for handling uploaded files.

5.      Most web applications benefit from having an images folder for storing images used by the application, especially those uploaded by users.

6. PHP scripts can use headers to control how the server delivers web content to the browser.

7. The built-in PHP header() function is used to send headers to the browser, which can be used to redirect a page, control the content type of a page, or request the authentication of a page.

8. When headers are sent to the browser using the header() function, calls to the header() function must come before any other content is sent.

9. When a page is protected using HTTP authentication, the user name and password entered by the user are stored in the $_SERVER superglobal.

10. The “basic realm” of an HTTP authentication is a security zone that gets associated with a specific user name and password, allowing multiple pages to be secured together.

11.  The built-in PHP exit() function exits a PHP script, preventing any code following it from being executed or otherwise sent to the browser.

12.  All web forms are at risk of attack from spam bots, but all spam bots are at risk from clever PHP programmers who use techniques such as CAPTCHA to thwart them.

13.  GD is a standard PHP graphics library that allows you to dynamically create images and then draw all kinds of different graphics and text on them.

14.  The createtruecolorimage() GD function is used to create a blank image for drawing.

15.  To output a PNG image to the browser or to a file on the server, call the imagepng() GD function.

16.  When you’re finished working with an image, call imagedestroy() to clean up after it.

17.  preg_match() locates matches for patterns in strings.

18.  preg_replace() changes matching strings.

19.  Quantifiers allow you to control how many times a character or set of characters can appear in a row.

20.  You can specify a set of characters to allow in your pattern using a character class.

21.  In your pattern, \d, \w, and \s are standins for digits, alphanumeric characters, and whitespace, respectively.

22.  checkdnsrr() checks the validity of domain names.

23.    HTTP authentication is handy for restricting access to individual pages, but it doesn’t offer a good way to “log out” a user when they’re finished accessing a page.

24.    Cookies let you store small pieces of data on the client (web browser), such as the log-in data for a user.

25.    All cookies have an expiration date, which can be far into the future or as near as the end of the browser session.

26.    To delete a cookie, you just set its expiration to a time in the past.

27.    Sessions offer similar storage as cookies but are stored on the server and, therefore, aren’t subject to the same browser limitations, such as cookies being disabled.

28.    Session variables have a limited lifespan and are always destroyed once a session is over (for example, when the browser is closed).

  1. A database is a container for storing data in a highly structured manner.
  1. Tables store data in a grid-like pattern of columns and rows within a database.
  1. The CREATE DATABASE SQL command is used to create a new database.
  1.  The CREATE TABLE SQL command creates a table within a database and requires detailed information about the columns of data within the table.
  1. You can delete a table from a database with the DROP TABLE SQL command.
  1. The mysqli_fetch_array() function retrieves a row of data from the results of a database query.
  1.  A while loop repeats a chunk of PHP code while a test condition is met.
  1. Database connections need a location, a username, a password, and a database name.
  1. The mysqli_connect() function creates a connection between your PHP script and the MySQL database server.
  1. The die() function exits the script and returns feedback if your connection fails.
  1. Issuing an SQL query from PHP code involves assembling the query in a string and then executing it with a call to mysqi_query().
  1. Call the mysqli_close() function to close a MySQL database.

Vocabulary words to match:

  1. MySQL
    An application that lets you store data in databases and tables and insert and retrieve information using the SQL language.
  1. SQL
    A query language for interacting with database applications like MySQL.
  1. PHP
    A server-side scripting language that lets you manipulate web page content on the server before a page is delivered to the client browser.
  1. PHP script
    A text file that contains PHP code to carry out tasks on a web server.
  1. array
    A data structure that stores a set of values. Each value has an index that you can use to access it.
  1. echo
    The PHP command for sending output to the browser window.
  1. while
    A PHP looping construct that allows you to repeat a section of code as long as a certain condition remains true. One particularly handy usage of the while loop is in looping through rows of data in an SQL query result.
  1. if, else
    The PHP if statement makes decisions based on whether or not something is true. Give it a true/false test condition and some action code, and an if statement will let you make all kinds of cool decisions. An else clause can be added to an if statement to give it an alternate action.
  1. Image folder
    This folder provides a convenient location to store images for an application, including images that were uploaded by users.

  2. header()
    This built-in PHP function is used to send a header from the server to the browser, allowing you to perform tasks such as redirecting the page, specifying a certain content type, or carrying out HTTP authentication.
  1. Form Validation
    The process of checking all of the data entered by a user into a form to ensure that it is in the expected format. In addition to making forms easier to use, validation can help make web applications more secure by not allowing users to enter bad data.
  1. setcookie()
    This built-in PHP function is used to set a cookie on the browser, including an optional expiration date, after which the cookie is destroyed. If no expiration is provided, the cookie is deleted when the browser is closed.
  1. ASname
    This SQL statement establishes an alias, which is a name used to identify a piece of data within a query. Aliases are often used to simplify queries by shortening long table and column names. They can also be used to rename result data when the original table column isn’t specific enough.
  1. Custom function
    A chunk of PHP code organized into a named, reusable package. The idea is to isolate code that performs a certain task so that it can be reused with minimal effort and code duplication.
  1. Character class
    A set of rules for matching a single character within a regular expression. For example, [A-D] matches the characters A, B, C, or D.
  1. CAPTCHA
    A program that protects a web site from automated spam bots by using a test of some sort. For example, a CAPTCHA test might involve discerning letters within a distorted pass-phrase, identifying the content of an image, or analyzing an equation to perform a simple mathematical computation.
  1. RSS
    An XML-based language used to store syndicated content, such as news stories. RSS allows web sites to make their data available to other applications and web sites for syndication, and allows you to take advantage of data made available by other sites.
  1. XML
    A generic markup language used to provide a predictable structure to data. There are many different markup languages built from XML, such as XHTML and RSS. The idea is that you create a set of tags specific to whatever data you’re storing as XML.
  1. Namespace
    A way of organizing a set of XML tags into a logical group, sort of like how your last name organizes your family into a named group. A namespace is always associated with a URL, which ensures uniqueness among all other namespaces.
  1. REST
    A means of accessing information on the web purely through URLs. REST allows you to make powerful data requests simply by creating a URL. Such requests are often referred to as “RESTful” requests.

Answer the following question.

  1. Describe how you would use phpMyAdmin (or MySQL terminal) to create/edit MySQL database tables.

    Two popular MySQL tools are the MySQL terminal and phpMyAdmin. Both tools let you issue SQL commands to create databases and tables, insert data, select data, etc., but phpMyAdmin goes a step further by also providing a point-and-click web-based interface.

 

Monday, 16 April 2012 19:21

Chapter 10 Homework

CIS 214           Chapter 10 Homework                                               Date Due: 04/23/2012

Student name: _____________________________________________________________

1.

Regular expressions are __________ used to match patterns in one or more strings.

Answer:

2.

Meta-characters let us describe patterns of text within a regular__________.

Answer:

3.

This meta-character looks for a digit. It will match any number from 0 to 9.

Answer:

4.

This meta-character looks for any alphanumeric character—in other words, either a letter or a number.

Answer:

5.

This meta-character looks for white space. This doesn’t mean just the space character you get on the screen when you hit the Space bar; \s also matches a tab character, or a newline or carriage return.

Answer:

6.

This meta-character looks for the beginning of a string, so you can use it to indicate that a match must happen at the start of a text string, rather than anywhere in the string.

Answer:

7.

The __________ meta-character, matches any one character, except a newline. It’ll match a letter or digit, just like \w, as well as a space or tab, like \s.

Answer:

8.

Looks for the end of a string. You can use this meta-character with ^ to bookend your match, specifying exactly where it will start and finish.

Answer:

9.

A __________ specifies how many times a metacharacter should appear.

Answer:

10.

A character __________ is a set of rules for matching a single character.

Answer:

11.

Standardizing your __________ gives you better SQL query results.

Answer:

12.

Validation is often a trade-off between what’s allowed and what is practical to__________.

Answer:

13.

PHP provides the __________ function for checking whether a domain is valid.

Answer:

Number of questions: 13

Number correct:________________________________     Percentage:_____________________

Grade:________________________________________

 

Wednesday, 04 April 2012 21:59

Chapter 9 Homework

CIS 214 PHP and MySQL

Chapter 8 Homework                                                                                                               Date due: 04/16/2012

Your name: _______________________________________________

 

1.

The __________ function reaks a string into an array of substrings.

Answer:

2.

Preprocessing data allows us to remove unwanted __________ and make the data easier to process.

Answer:

3.

The PHP substr() function allows you to __________ a portion of a string.

Answer:

4.

Custom functions allow you to organize a chunk of __________ code by name so that it can be easily reused.

Answer:

5.

A SWITCH statement contains a series of __________ labels that execute different code blocks depending on the value of a variable.

Answer:

6.

LIMIT controls what and how many rows are returned by an __________ query.

Answer:

 

 

For instructor use:

Total number of questions:    6

Total Correct:                        _______________________

Percent:                                  _______________________

Grade:                                    _______________________

 

Wednesday, 04 April 2012 21:37

Chapter 8 Homework

CIS 214 PHP and MySQL

Chapter 8 Homework                                                                                                               Date due: 04/16/2012

Your name: _______________________________________________

 

1.

A description of the data (the tables and columns) in your database, along with any other related objects and the way they all connect is known as a_________.

Answer:

2.

Creating a __________ of a table lets you keep the design of the table separate from the data that’s inside of it.

Answer:

3.

A __________ key is a column in a table that references the primary key of another table.

Answer:

4.

Large arrows show primary keys connecting to foreign keys to wire together __________.

Answer:

5.

One-to-One: exactly one row of a parent table is related to one row of a __________ table.

Answer:

6.

One-to-Many: exactly one row of a parent table is related to __________ rows of a child table.

Answer:

7.

Many-to-Many: Multiple __________ of a parent table are related to multiple rows of a child table.

Answer:

8.

Data-driven forms rely on __________ in a MySQL database to generate HTML form fields.

Answer:

9.

The __________ operator can be used to code if-else statements in a more compact form.

Answer:

10.

Normalization means designing a __________ to reduce duplicate data and improve the relationships between data.

Answer:

11.

Atomic data is data that has been broken down into the smallest __________ needed for a given database.

Answer:

12.

Making your data atomic is the __________ step in creating a normal table.

Answer:

13.

Normalization has its benefits, namely improvements in database __________ and speed.

Answer:

14.

Normalizing a database involves strictly __________ to a series of design steps.

Answer:

15.

More tables usually lead to messier__________ .

Answer:

16.

A __________ grabs results from multiple tables in a single query.

Answer:

17.

Dot notation allows you to __________ the table a column belongs to within a join.

Answer:

18.

An INNER __________ combines rows from two tables using comparison operators in a condition.

Answer:

19.

Rewrite ON with __________ for more concise inner join queries that match on a common column.

Answer:

20.

The column names must be the same in order to use the __________ statement in an inner join.

Answer:

21.

An __________ allows you to rename a table or column within a query to help simplify the query in some way.

Answer:

22.

When a column is __________ with an alias, the alias is what appears in the query results.

Answer:

23.

Joins are more efficient and require less code than __________ queries.

Answer:

 

 

For instructor use:

Total Correct:                        _______________________

Percent:                                  _______________________

Grade:                                    _______________________

 

Tuesday, 27 March 2012 20:39

Chapter 6 Homework

CIS 214 PHP and MySQL

Chapter 6 Homework                                                                                                               Date due: 04/02/2012

Your name: _______________________________________________

 

1.

HTTP authentication provides a simple way to secure a page using __________________.

Answer:

2.

All web ___________________ are delivered with the help of headers.

Answer:

3.

The header() ___________________ lets you create and send a header from a PHP script.

Answer:

4.

Two specific headers are required to request the ______________________ of a web page.

Answer:

5.

PHP scripts can use ___________________ to control how the server delivers web content to the browser.

Answer:

6.

The built-in PHP header() function is used to send headers to the browser, which can be used to redirect a page, control the content type of a page, or request the ________________________ of a page.

Answer:

7.

When headers are sent to the browser using the ___________________ function, calls to the header() function must come before any other content is sent.

Answer:

8.

When a page is protected using HTTP authentication, the user name and password entered by the user are stored in the $_SERVER__________________.

Answer:

9.

The “_________________      ________________” of an HTTP authentication is a security zone that gets associated with a specific user name and password, allowing multiple pages to be secured together.

Answer:

10.

The built-in PHP ____________________  function exits a PHP script, preventing any code following it from being executed or otherwise sent to the browser.

Answer:

11.

Never underestimate the ability of determined people to ____________________- _____________________- your PHP scripts and exploit weaknesses.

Answer:

12.

Human moderation is an excellent way to improve the ___________________  of user submitted content.

Answer:

13.

Use __________________ to select rows based on the value of a certain column.

Answer:

14.

Form fields are a ___________________ weak point for web applications because they allow users to enter data.

Answer:

15.

SQL __________________ can be prevented by properly processing form data.

Answer:

16.

An ___________________ query can be written so that it nails down exactly what values go in what columns.

Answer:

17.

Whenever possible, insist on __________________ data being in the format you’ve requested.

Answer:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For instructor use.

Total Correct:                        _______________________

Percent:                                  _______________________

Grade:                                    _______________________

 

Monday, 27 February 2012 18:57

Reading Assignment Chapter 5

Read all of Chapter 5

Be prepared for a quiz, based off of page 293 in your textbooks. 

 

Monday, 13 February 2012 23:03

CIS 214 Chapter 4 Homework

CIS 214 PHP and MySQL

Chapter 4 Homework                                                                                                               Date due: 02/27/2012

Your name: _______________________________________________

 

1.

Validation, which is the process of checking to make sure form _______________ is OK before doing anything with it.

Answer:

2.

Sending the _______________ should completely hinge on the data validation.

Answer:

3.

Languages like _______________ can do clientside validation.

Answer:

4.

PHP_______________ statement lets your code make decisions based on whether or not something is true.

Answer:

5.

The heart of the if statement is its test _______________, which is always interpreted as either true or false.

Answer:

6.

It’s quite common to use a _______________ as a test condition, which typically

involves comparing a variable to some value.

Answer:

7.

Equality comparisons aren’t just for variables and strings. You can compare variables to numbers, variables to variables, and even perform _______________.

Answer:

8.

There are two ways to check if things are not _______________: <> and!=.

Answer:

9.

The_______________ than sign (>) checks to see if the value on the left is greater than the value on the right.

Answer:

10.

The_______________ than sign (<) compares the value on the left to the value on the right.

Answer:

11.

Greater than or equal to (>=) is like greater than (>) except it also results in true if the two values are ______________.

Answer:

12.

Less than or equal to (<=) is _______________ to less than, except it’s also true if the values are equal.

Answer:

13.

Yes, you can compare strings in _______________ test conditions. They work based on the alphabet, with a being considered smaller than (less than) z.

Answer:

14.

Is a test condition the same thing we used to control while loops in Chapter 3?

Answer:

15.

The _______________ function tests to see if a variable exists,

Answer:

16.

Theempty() function takes things one step further and determines whether a variable contains an _______________ value.

Answer:

17.

Isset() doesn’t show you the difference between a blank form field and a filled out one. The _______________ function checks to see if a variable is actually empty, which is what we need for form validation.

Answer:

18.

The _______________ function is extremely valuable when you need to know if a piece of data exists.

Answer:

19.

The _______________ operator (!) turns true into false, or false into true.

Answer:

20.

PHP logic _______________ make it possible to structure more elegant if statements.

Answer:

21.

Logical ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­_______________ is coded as &&, while logical OR is coded as ||.

Answer:

22.

The AND (&&) and OR (||) logical operators make it possible to structure much more powerful _______________ conditions that would otherwise require additional, often messy, if statements.

Answer:

23.

Does it matter what order you put two conditions joined by && or || in an if statement?

Answer:

24.

The _______________ clause starts right after the closing curly brace for the if statement.

Answer:

25.

Just like the action code in an if, the code in an _______________ is enclosed in curly braces.

Answer:

26.

The else clause _______________ code when an if test condition is false.

Answer:

27.

It's always a good idea to simplify code whenever possible, especially _______________ code that gets too deep.

Answer:

28.

You can close and open blocks of PHP code to output chunks of _______________ code in a PHP script.

Answer:

29.

Use a _______________ variable known as a flag to keep track of whether or not we need to output the form.

Answer:

30.

Setting _______________ to false initially means the form won't get shown unless there is a validation problem that causes its value to change.

Answer:

31.

By making _______________ code dependent on an IF statement, we avoid duplicate code in our script.

Answer:

32.

An HTML form that is part of the PHP script that processes it is known as _______________.

Answer:

33.

Sticky _______________ remember the data the user has already correctly entered.

Answer:

34.

The _______________ attribute of the <form> tag connects a form to the script that processes it.

Answer:

35.

$_SERVER[‘PHP_SELF’] stores away the _______________ of the current script.

Answer:

36.

The $_POST _______________ allows us to check and see if a form has been submitted.

Answer:

37.

For a text area input field, we echo the sticky data in between the <textarea> and </textarea> _______________ instead of using the value attribute.

Answer:

38.

It’s incredibly important for each row in a table to be _______________ identifiable, meaning that you can specifically access one row (and only that row!).

Answer:

39.

We can use it to create a new column without having to drop the table and destroy its data.

Answer:

40.

A _______________ key is a column in your table that makes each row unique.

Answer:

41.

The_______________ loop is a special kind of loop designed specifically for cycling through values stored in an array.

Answer:

42.

The _______________ loop takes an array and loops through each element in the array without the need for a test condition or loop counter.

Answer

 

 

 

 

Total Correct:                        _______________________

Percent:                                  _______________________

Grade:                                    _______________________

 

Monday, 28 November 2011 18:00

Final Project #2

CIS 212          Fall 2011                               Final Project #2                   Date handed out: 11/28/11

Create your own 3 page website for a professional coffee company. The website must contain the following:

Page 1

Home Page

Include the use of the meta tag(s) that uses words and phrases in your code which could improve your rankings and help search engines determine what your page is about.

Page 2
About us

Page 3

Online Order Form - As used on page 631 of your textbook.

You can use the images and text from your textbook, “Headfirst, HTML with CSS & XHTML” when creating your professional coffee website. (Starbuzz Coffee or Head First Lounge examples)

All 3 pages need to be linked to each other, so at any time a user can successfully switch between any sections.

Link and style your website with an external style sheet.

You will be graded on 25% functionality, 25% layout and 25% content and 25% on design.

Project is due by the end of class on 12/05/11. NO EXCEPTIONS! If you do not hand this project in by that time you will receive a 0 (zero) for the project.

 

Monday, 07 November 2011 18:33

Final Project #1

CIS 212          Fall 2011                               Final Project #1                   Date handed out: 11/07/11

Create your own 4 page professional website containing the following sections.

Page 1

Home(Button)
         Welcome page

Page 2
About Me (Button)
         Covers the following:
         Who you are.
         What your personal and educational goals are.
         What you like to do on your spare time, hobbies, social groups, etc.
         Were you see yourself in ten years.

Page 3
Contact Information
(Button)
         Information an employer can use to contact you, such as your phone number as well as
         your email address.

Page 4
Resume
(Button)
         Create an online resume (formatting it using the elements you have learned from your textbook)
         Resume should include the following:
         Full Name, address, phone number, email address, your website address
         Qualifications (This is usually where you list the programs you know)
         Specialized skills (Any kind of skills that make you stand out from the crowd)
         Education (List everything up to this point)
         Work History (list everything up to this point)
         References (“Available upon request”)

Download resume (Button) - This button will allow the user to download a copy of your current resume.

         Your resume should be in pdf or doc format.

All 4 pages need to be linked to each other, so at anytime a user can successfully switch between any section.

You must use a minimum of 2 image/graphic per page.

Link and style your website with an external style sheet.

Use what you have learned from your textbooks to help you design your website.

You will be graded on design 50%, layout 25% and content 25%. Remember to make it look professional!

Final Project #1 will be due at the start of class on November 21st.

I WILL NOT ACCEPT LATE FINAL PROJECTS!
If you do not hand it in within the given time you will be given a zero for the project.

Monday, 24 October 2011 18:11

Homework #8

CIS 212          Fall 2011         Homework 8                                                              Date handed out: 10/24/2011

Reading Assignment:            14 Getting Interactive: XHTML Forms
                                                
Appendix: The Top Ten Topics (we didn’t cover)

Note: Your answers must be turned in handwritten, (no typed responses will be accepted). Students can print out the homework and write in their answers.

Homework is due at beginning of class on Monday October 31th, 2011.
Chapter 14

  1. Once you enable your pages with ____________________ (along with a little help from a Web server) your pages are going to be able to gather customer feedback, take an online order, get the next move in an online game, or collect the votes in a “hot or not” contest.

  2. A form is basically a Web page with input fields that allow you to enter ____________________.

  3. A control is just something like a ____________________ or a text input box or a drop down menu – basically something that allows you to input data.

  4. Once the server has the form data, it passes it off to the appropriate Web ____________________ for processing.

  5. To create a form you use a <__________> element.

  6. The <form> element – not only does it hold all the elements that make up the form, but it also tells the ____________________ where to send your form data when you submit the form.

  7. The ____________________ attribute holds the URL of the Web server… and the name of the application that will process the form data.

  8. The ____________________ attribute determines how the form data will be sent to the server.

  9. To create Web applications you need to know a scripting or programming ____________________, and one that is supported by your hosting company.

  10. The text <_________> element is for entering one line of text.

  11. The <input> element is an ____________________ element, so you end it with a “/>”.

  12. The submit <_________> element creates a button that allows you to submit a from.

  13. For a submit button, specify “____________________” as the <input> element’s type.

  14. The radio <input> element creates a single control with several buttons only one of which can be ____________________ at any time.

  15. All the radio buttons associated with a given set of choices must have the same ____________________, but each choice has a different value.

  16. A checkbox <input> element creates a checkbox control that can be either checked or ____________________.
     
  17. Unlike radio buttons, a checkbox allows zero or more of a set of ____________________.

  18. The <textarea> element creates a multi-line text area that you can ____________________ into.

  19. The <textarea> element is not an empty element so it has both an opening and ____________________ tags.

  20. The <_________> element creates a menu control in the web page.

  21. The <select> element works in combination with the <_________> element below to create a menu.

  22. Just like the other form elements, give the select element a unique name using the ____________________ attribute. 

  23. The <option> element works with the <_________> element to create a menu. Use an <option> element for each menu item.

  24. The first thing you have to know when creating a <form> element is the URL of the Web application that is going to process your form ____________________.

  25. Once you know the ____________________ of the Web application that will process your form, all you need to do is plug it onto the action attribute for your <form> element.

  26. The name ____________________ acts as an identifier for the data the user types in.

  27. The ____________________ attribute: it acts as the glue between your form and the Web application that processes it.

  28. The Web application needs the ____________________ data to be labeled so it can tell what is what.

  29. Yes     or      No      Can I make the submit button say something other than “Submit”.

  30. POST ____________________ up your form variables and sends them behind the scenes to your server.

  31. Get also ____________________ up your form variables, but appends them on the end of the URL before it sends a request to the server.

  32. A situation when you’d never want to use a ____________________ is when the data in your form is private, like a credit card or a password.

  33. Get requests have a limit of 256 characters; ____________________ has no limit on the size of the data package you send.

    Appendix

  34. ____________________-____________________ pseudo-element can be used to select the first letter of the text in a block element, allowing you to create effects like caps and drop caps.

  35. There’s one other pseudo-element called ____________________-____________________, which you can use to select the first line of a paragraph.

  36. You can also select elements based on their preceding, ____________________.
     
  37. These days frames are, for the most part, considered “____________________   ____________________” because they cause navigation and usability problems, and they are not recommended by the W3C.

  38. HTML supports these types of media through an element called <____________________> that is responsible for embedding external content into your Web page.

  39. All these applications attempt to provide what-you-see-is-what-you-get ____________________ tools for creating Web pages.

  40. HTML pages don’t have to be passive documents; they can also have content that is ____________________.

  41. ____________________ actually has access to the entire document tree of elements (the same element the you worked with in Chapter 3) and can programmatically change value and elements in the tree.

  42. Many Web pages aren’t created by hand, but are generated by Web applications running on a ____________________.

  43. If your new to programming, ____________________ may be the easiest language to start with, and there are millions of PHP-driven Web pages, so you’d be in good company.

  44. In some cases you may not want your site to be listed in the search engine rankings, and you can use ____________________ to request that they not be listed.

  45. To improve your rankings and help search engines determine what your page is about, start with two <____________> tags in your <head> element: one to list leywords and the other to provide a description of your content.

  46. If you want to request that your site not be listed, which works with most of the major search engines, just put a <___________> tag in the head of your XHTML.

  47. If you specify a value of “____________________” in the media attribute of a style sheet, then that style sheet is used when your page is printed.

  48. While mobile devices are getting more sophisticated, their support for ____________________ and CSS still varies widely among the various devices.

  49. Webblogs – or “blogs” as they are commonly known – are like personal Web pages, except they are written in ____________________ style.

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